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hibis   Curiosity.
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this page,   Works of art -    traffic, energy, power, science..

  Colorado Bridge (between Nevada and Arizona). . Began in 2005, completion October 14, 2010, after some difficulties. Modern bridges are built without scaffolding, that would be totally impossible there, and grow of their own, sliding a unit comparable to the huge tunnel boring machines. Here, above a breathtaking vacuum, the arch is prolonged with the sole support that has been built behind !  the machine is setting up and down the the structure, and the concretes.

The same principle, but without any prefabricated elements to weld :

Dutch MX3D has teamed up with giant Autodesk Software to build a 3 merged bridge in 3D processing" (*) of 7 meters on a canal of Holland in 2017.
We see here two white controlled robots sliding up to the bridge (in 1), that melt metal rods on " drops of metal already deposited and solidified. Thus advances the bridge, with in 3D, its delicate designs of wrought iron !

(*) I say personally "merged" " for simplicity because the name "3D printing" is unsuitable and now replaced, in the industry, by "metal additive manufacturing" technology, according to Michelin, which created an industrial research subsidiary.

Viaduc of Millau
A bridge rises above the normal level of the ground to "jump" an obstacle, generally a river, at nearly the level of the ground or so, or for to let the boats passing. The viaduct is flat and passes a hollow, generally of the ground, or as the Millau one, a valley. Between the two, the debates are eternal.
Big bridges are seemingly made of concrete but are in fact metallic and hollow ! the concrete is in siding or in reinforcement for the piles, which also include a strong metal frame. The inside of the structure was once painted but now, it is not. A moisture controlled air circulates now inside, so that the rust is stabilized. We gain in maintenance, weight and safety.
photo: section of the viaduct of Millau whose different sections, made on the ground, are threaded and pushed one behind the other then welded between them, until the last two, one on each side, meet in the middle!
An adjustment of the stays will complete a chaotic alignment. the interior is lined with reinforcing metal braces, and there are control sensors to detect any anomaly. Two men can walk side by side in the central corridor (see the striking picture presented by FR3)

Central link of an axis that must connect the North Sea to the Mediterranean, the longest railway tunnel in the world is Swiss. It replaces an old tunnel on Mount St Gothard and eleven years work were necessary to complete it on October 15, 2010 for commissioning scheduled in 2017. Its two tubes tart from Erstfeld and end in Bodio, 57 kilometers. The Seikan, Japan, is 53.9 km (1988). That of Mt Cenis, France, expected in 2023, will have 53 km

Terrific drillings.
We know how to go very deep underground or underwater (several thousand meters), but we can hardly imagine the complexity of current drilling techniques. The review " Research " unveils a part of it, starting with the drilling of soil analysis, measurements (associated sensors), injections, rejection of excavated material, etc.
Thus, it is possible to drill vertically up to 2000 meters, then to raise the drilling almost horizontally on 10 kilometers and finally, to go up or down, until less than a meter of the planned point !. At sea, we talk about five kilometers.
Opposite, photo of a Drill Head  
How is it possible ? by the control of a motor which decenters the drill head; this one then at an angle. We control the decentering to correct the trajectory permanently.
To exploit reserves covering several kilometers on firm ground, a network of wells is installed. At sea, a platform operates many wells and then manages all these wells, up to 35 for Perdido, the last of the Gulf of Mexico. The diagram shows the course of drilling under water, then in the basement. The green line marks the waterline of the platform. & Nbsp; Report of "the 5" (TV).


Giant platform "Perdido" Several billion euros, 18,000 tons (bridge of 9,000 tons). The first & quot; floating & quot; to rest only on a single float, ballasted at its base of 13,000 tons of iron ore. Explosion-proof partitions separate the housing part. Maximum safety has been sought against fire, overturning and breaking pipes; this last point by seeking the best possible stabilization of oscillations (waves, circular marine currents). Report of "the 5" (TV).


Giant alternator driven by turbine. Here this part is "the armature""". Electric current is "induced" along its copper wires, due to the rotating magnetic fields generated by the rotor, said inductor, which is spinning inside (where is the man) &Nbsp;

Here is the rotor (inductor), which rotates inside the armature; Note : it seem flat, for bad perspective.

Consisting of magnetic poles (magnets), permanent or current-fed electrical for a high power, each pole emits an electric field that rotate with him.
Folder "The Search". Alsthom (Montbeliard). Alsthom is the world's No 1 in hydropower. Its turbines and generators have been preserved from purchase by Siemens.

As we said above, The fixed part that surrounds the central rotor produces the current .

Everything is giant here, 160 kilometers of copper bars firmly arranged and fixed between them. We talk above about copper wires swept by the magnétic field of the rotor (inductor), but they are not wires, given the size but true copper bars coiled


China : On June 6, 2006, after 13 years of work, the Three Gorges Dam on the river Yangtze (the blue river, or Yangzi-Jiang, the long river), is put into operation (near Yichang). A concrete wall 2309 meters long and 185 meters high; water reservoir of more than 600 km.

Hydraulic turbine room of the Three Gorges Dam (China). 15 out of 26 are produced by Alsthom. Enclosed in the ground, they are high as a 10-storey building. The total diameter reaches 21 meters. at the bottom of each well is placed a hydraulic turbine (finned), which is powered by the torrent   of water from the dam. Above, it entails its axis an alternator rotor, surrounded by its armature.   (see left for inductors (rotors) and armature).

Here, a turbine for the Vietnam.

The most BIG electromagnets .
In September 2008, the largest particle accelerator in the world , the Large Hadron Collider or "LHC" is started up at CERN , on the French-Swiss border. Located at 100 meters underground and 27 km long , the LHC is the largest particle accelerator in the world. It has two tubes under a very high vacuum in which the beams of particles are sent. The beams are guided by a powerful electromagnetic field generated by some 1600 magnets .

Aligned with a precision of the order of a tenth of a millimeter, each of the 1232 main magnets is 15 meters long and weighs 35 tons !
Rarely among the accelerators, the windings of these magnets are superconductors , in other words they conduct electricity without resistance, up to 13,000 amperes or loss of energy . This property only appears at very low temperatures.
The magnets are therefore placed in a chamber in which superfluid helium circulates, which allows to cool them to -271.3°C. It takes two months to cool one of the eight sectors. Ultra-complex equipment is reminiscent of interplanetary science fiction: would it really be? the exorbitant cost him, is very real.

Far fewer, but 10 times heavier !   ITER is an abbreviation for "international thermonuclear experimental reactor". To obtain the temperature of 150 million degrees in the reactor core, containing a plasma of deuterium and tritium nuclei, and allow fusion to occur, 18 superconducting electromagnets of 360 tons each , will produce a completely insensitive electromagnetic field. " The "La Recherche" No.437 January 2010. The billions of euros fly away, 10, then 20, then .. we do not even know what material will resist. enough to guarantee the seal. The best thing is that if magnets are there to guide the ultra-burning flux of nothing matter three times, it is to prevent it from touching the walls.

And if the ultra-hot flow must absolutely not touch the walls, it also means that we are unable to collect the heat, that is the usable power !

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