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this page,    waves and radiation, extreme matter.. French

- Light, waves and sound - Matter and atoms, laser - Time, space, and GPS

lighting, waves, sight and hearing;   1/light and lighting; the lighting alters our perception of things; if something is enlightened only partially, a part being hidden in the shade, this thing can be seen and identified in a very different way according to the witnesses. The lighting of the morning is not that of the evening and our perception of the things is much more dependent on the environment than  we générally think, especially when the light dwindle at sunset or also with a back-light. It is very often dependent on our concerns or what one thinks or would like to see.      

A flash blinds us and persists on our retina after its disappearance. This luminous persistence opened the way for the cinema without which any animated representation had been more complex; a film projects successive still images (25 a second by the TV, 24 by the cinema) and our eyes bind them in a kind of "dissolve" movement. The first movement was created with kinds of revolving lanterns, then with notebooks of drawings whose one released quickly the pages. The cinema made it possible to show for the first time the gallop of a horse and its movement of legs. The camera allows to observe what one cannot see because of his speed: incredible are the effects of a simple water drop which fall into water, digs a basin, makes flash back a geyser and rebounds by forming other drops. The fastest cameras seize a ball of rifle crossing the target.

The periodic shot of sight is has connections with the periodic lighting which one names stroboscopy. The stroboscopy effect often makes doubt people at the movie or television when they see the reverse rotating of the carriage wheels in the western. The wheels turn well forwards and it is a true carriage but as the camera "sees" only briefly the wheels each 25th of second, if a bar of the wheel did not have time to replace or slightly exceed the precedent at the time of the following slide shot, the whole of the bars will have seemingly moved back between two successive shots; the wheel will thus turn reverse at the projection! this phenomenon can be  verified with a neon tube, which ignites and dies out at the frequency of the electrical current, that is to say 50 times a second; make a disc of paper or light paperboard of 20 or 30 cm diameter; trace on the circumference  short lines spaced by a few millimetres while following the rays (drawn from the center, that is to say, fan like). Point it with a pin on a small plank and launch it highly in rotation, close to a lighting neon. While slowing down, you will see the disc stopping, then rotating reverse and starting again forward. This principle is used to observe a too fast mechanical phenomenon while lighting it periodically (example, the setting of the idling of cars engines).

Thin liquid films; the light is both disconcerting and is disturbed in a good many cases: the effects of irisation of a gasoline or oil film on the water, like those of the soapy water bubbles (*), are produced by the smoothness of the film, which supports (favours) the propagation of such coloured component of the light or another.
 (*) the tickness is thus theorically that of a molecule and this is how one measured for the first time the dimension of a molecule, the physicist having had the presentiment that an oil film (of olive), did not stop its expansion until it had spread out all his molecules).
The magic takes a lot from the science. The thin films can not only reveal effects of irisation, but also of black zones; this phenomenon, related to the disappearance of any light, is from now on observable publicly in certain exhibitions of magic (a tended vertical framework of a thin liquid film). Let us retain simply that any luminous frequency "is disturbed" by the fluid which it crosses if the thickness of this fluid is as thin or thinner as the undulation produced by its frequency (lenght of wave). Many things depend on the relative dimension of the objects: you can cross a brook by spanning it, but not a torrent which does not contain sufficient emerged stones. It is a little the case of our black light with its film, obstructed by a too much low thickness enabling him to circulate usually. Measurements; to make a measurement, one needs an apparatus much finer than the object to be measured: one cannot measure an asperity only sensitive to the finger with a meter of dressmaker, nor to appreciate one micron with a tenth mm caliper rule.
For measuring an electrical current, it is necessary that the measuring apparatus takes only very little electricity on this current. To measure the distance covered by a car with a radar, it is necessary that the speed of the car is negligible compared to the wave speed emitted by this one. One cannot measure an electronic circuit (very low consumption by the components) with a voltmeter adapted to the current of 220 volts and more because it will alter too much it, if not destroying what one wants to measure. An electronic microscope can no longer show anything when the size of the object to be measured is too close of the "size" (wavelength) of the light which light it. One then "touches" the surface of the matter with a point to palpate and "see" his form. But which stylet is finer than a fine light beam amplified by electronics ? a very sharp "stylet" made with some atoms whose size will make it possible to follow the shape of the molecules or cluster of atoms !

 2/  the sound and the light which arrive and which from go away. The sound of a car approaching is not the same that the one when it is passing and moving away. However, at constant speed, it emits the same noise; a phenomenon, related at the speed and the relative position of the observer thus intervenes: it is the compression or the stretching of the sound waves. Men like to imitate the passage of a car: when the car approaches, the sound waves that it emits appear acuter (compressed waves, higher frequency, shorter wavelength); it shifts progressively towards bass tone when the car moves away (stretched waves, lower frequency, longer wavelength), like this : iiiiiiuuuuuuoooommm ; this effect named Doppler Fizeau can be used to calculate the speed of a body moving; it makes it possible to know if something approaches or moves away and at which speed; if the car turns around you, there is no effect. Applied to astronomy, this effect makes it possible to evaluate the displacement of the celestial bodies or the galaxies: as for the sound which from trebble becomes bass, the color of the light changes: there is displacement towards the high frequencies, side (ultra)violet if the light approaches, and toward lower frequencies, side (infra)rouge, if it moves away. Point out you to them colors of the rainbow, purple indigo blue, green yellow orange and red, that is to say shorter wave (high frequency) towards the longer wave (weaker frequency).

Not to associate the principle Doppler Fizeau the conventional radar; this one sending of the impulses and measurement the time spent after their return by reflexion on the accused object (atmospheric car, plane, layers.). Knowing the propagation velocity of the wave of the radar and time put to suit it return of the emitted wave, one can know the distance covered in this same time, i.e. speed. The laser radar is more precise because more rapid and easier to point on a reduced surface (the traditional radar aspergeant a little everywhere). The laser beam makes the return ticket ground the moon in two seconds approximately (at the speed of the light, that is to say 300.000 kilometers a second).

The matter ; Atoms, electrons and electricity; evey bodies (matters) of our planet consist of atoms, considered as being the ultimate fraction of the matter, although they themselves are split in other chunks! ; they never were visualized and thus remain a theory: on this level, the matter is only vacuum because an atom could be represented by an orange or a soccer ball in the center of the place of the "la Concorde" in Paris, with balls or table tennis balls spinning on various spheres up to the periphery. These imaginary spheres on which each electron revolve are called layers or energy levels). Aoms differ by their core and the number of electrons which revolve (turn) around. Théorically, the more significant the number of atoms is and the more the core consequently is . The atom is in electric balance, the positive loads contained in the core compensating those, negative, of the electrons. If electrons are torn off, those unceasingly will seek to find "a core of reception"; as for the core, it becomes positive and seeks to collect solitary electrons (known as "free"). Thus is born the static electricity (by tearing off electrons by friction), just as the electrical current, made up of free electrons moving of a pole (+) to another (-).            

picture above : a regular ignition plug of car engine. It is the white shiny ceramic part !  magnified, it is a chaos of blocs.

Here are some elements known with their number of atoms and their atomic mass (not directly in relation to the density, but that gives an idea). Notice that the number of electrons is not enough to define a body (density, gas, liquid, solid state); iridium (77 electrons) is an extremely hard metal whereas mercury (80 electrons) is liquid. simple hydrogen (H) 1 electron and atomic mass 1 - lithium (Li) 3 and 6,9 - sodium (Na) 11et 23 - magnesium (Mg), 12 and 24,3 - potassium (K), 19 and 39,1 - calcium (Ca) 20 and 40,1 - titane(Ti) 22 and 47,9 - Vanadium (V) 23 and 51 - chromium (Cr) 24 and 52 - iron (Fe) 26 and 55,8 - cobalt (Co) 27 and 58,9 - nickel (Ni) 28 and 58,7 - copper (Cu) 29 and 63,5 - krypton (Kr) 36 and 83,8 - cadmium (Cd) 48 and 112,4 - tin (Sn 50 and 118,7 - iodine (I) 53 and 126,9 - xenon (Xe) 54 and 131,3 - tungsten (W) 74 and 183,9 - platinum (Pt) 78 and 195,2 - but (With) 79 and 197,2 - mercury (Hg) 80 and 200, 6 - lead (Pb) 82 and 207,2 - radium (Ra) 88 and 226 - uranium (U) 92 and 238,1 - the plutonium (Pu) 94 (heaviest, most toxic, longest (hundreds of years); mortal quantity = 1 millionth gram (1 micro gram).

Atoms core contained  also other  particles, of which neutrons, often more numerous than protons souvent en plus grand nombre que les protons. Uranium 235 (92 protons) only differ from uranium 238 (always 92 protons) by the number of neutrons (three more). It is said that they are isotopes. It was thought that the particles of the core were organized in layers (levels), like the electrons, but the odd shapes ofectoplasms which one now allot to the cores seems to go against this theory.

Research on the atoms does not cease evolving and the model admitted until now is well discussed by certain reports: for example, there would be atoms which would not have a proton, what would call into question all the electric system of balance between core and electrons admitted until now. The cores themselves pose problem because their forms would be varied so much that they would resemble sometimes at molecules ! Some cores are abnormally large like that of the lithium 11 which, with its 3 protons (and 8 neutrons), is as large as that of uranium with its 92 protons !   .. and heavy atoms, in theory unstable as if they hardly could gathering the whole of their particles, would be sometimes very stable.   The discovery of infinitely small does nothing but start. Step after step, atoms seem to evolve towards a another world. Effects of scale are frightening.

Comparative scale: an atom measures 1 meter divided by 1 followed by 10 zeros (1m /10000000000, that is also an Angströn (see top of page) also said 1 power (- 10). The core approximately would be 1 divided by 1 followed by 15 zeros and the electron still much smaller.

There are million of million cells for thousandths of gram of matter, whereas a "typical" molecule itself consists of 10 follow-up of 25 zero, elementary particles (the atoms) !  Said also 10 power 25.

The laser light; it is a light wave creates by the man and who does not have any existence in nature, which is an exceptional fact; simplified explanation: the light we can perceive is emitted (lamp, sun) or is reflected (the moon, all beings and materials of our planet). Any emitted light is produced by multiple luminous points (sources), for example all along the filament of a lamp; this light comes in fact from the atoms (here those of the filament) inside which one or more electrons fall on a lower level of rotation (around the core of the atom, see Physics 1, matter and atoms). Each point, that is to say an atom, emits an electromagnetic wave without being concerned with what does the nearby point: it emits its wave at the time when its atoms fall a level under because that corresponds to a loss of instantaneous energy and as "nothing is lost, nothing is created, all changes", the loss of energy is found in the form of an emission of luminous energy.
But what our laser? eh well, if one forces all these electrons to fall together at the same time (let us suppose all along the filament), one creates a light of which all the multiple rays vibrate at the same pace (are synchronized). This light, known as laser, cannot be produced by a filament because one cannot control it, but the principle remains. Its advantage is to keep very concentrated and extremely powerful; so its range is considerable because its beam does not widen - or very little - at the contrary of that of a bulb. The laser light, according to its power, cleans  pieces of art, resticks a retina or cuts a crystalline lens, cuts out all materials, probes the atmosphere and detects the layers of air or the gases by reflexion, measure the distance from our planet to the moon or between two walls, gives a level or is used for weapons to aimed a target .. Too much concentrated and covering a tiny surface, it does not light but our eyes must be absolutely protected. The light known as laser produced by the lasers diode is not a true laser light (small flashlights, twinkling objects children, garlands of Christmas, luminous postings..).

Living being matter ; human body: 60 % of water, 39 % of lipids (greases), glucides (sugars), protids and 1 % of rock salt: the quantity of water varies according to moments or hot weather (one swells in the summer), from where fluctuations of weight. Composition of the body (elements in kilo); for an individual of 70 kg: oxygenate 45,5 - carbon 12,6 - hydrogen 7 - nitrogenizes 2,1 - calcium 1. Trace elements (in grams): magnesium 39 - iron 3 - zinc 2 - manganese 0,2 - copper 0,15 - iodine 0,03 - traces of nickel, cobalt, aluminium, molybdenum, vanadium, lead, tin, titanium, brominates. 

the number of cells is out of our understanding ; the sole white globule (lymphocytes) would be 1000 billionss. They would produce 100 billions of billions (10 power 20) of moleculas d’antibody. 

I heard to quote a figure for the number of our cells :10 power 13, that is to say the number 10 followed-up by 13 zeros. But it is enough to take again the preceding estimates to see the anomaly: the “already” 1000 billion white globules, that is to say 10 and 12 zeros ! it seems that facing too high numbers, everyone is mislaid. That is also to compare with another estimate: “millions and millions of cells in a thousandth of gram of matter” (which matter?), that is to say for a 60 kilo being, 60.000.000 milligrams multiplied by “millions and  millions”, at random taken 6 million million = .000 multiplied by our 60.000.000 milligrams = 36 follow-up by 19 zeros !!     .it is well beyond !

 Any creation of the ground begins its life with only one cell, a grain. For the mankind, it is the ovule. One can't understand how the cells can reproduce and especially be different starting from “special cells”, they are able to produce any type of cell.

Any creation of the earth begins its life with only one cell. This cell, a “seed”, an “egg” is already a being which goes, to some extent, while developing and by creating the whole of animalcules and required functions, to form a colony, a swarm predetermined : a whale, a flea, a human. For the mankind, the seed, the egg, it is the ovum. One does not understand how the cells can reproduce and especially be different, starting from “cells stock”, able to produce any type of cell. Some cells are intended to disappear, but one cannot however remove them without deteriorating the processing of creation. Some transmit codes without error, others not.

In a laboratory, one studies the reproduction of the simplest primitive life : the worm; in fact, they are tiny worms, whose speed of reproduction per self cutting (cut in two) of each new worm, is impressive.

Space-time. It is a concept which does not prevent us yet from sleeping. Time is a relative and variable concept, at least in its perception, each one of us admits that; less undoubtedly when one is young and that it seems stretching, more when one gets old and it seems accelerating. That it could depend on speed is another business: here comes the explanation of  French professor Jacquard: a train leaves Marseilles going to Lyon, at this moment, the pendulums of the two stations and the watch of the traveller indicates the same hour (with a diabolic precision). Arrived in Lyon station, the watch of the traveller does not indicate any more the same hour but that of the station of Lyon!  it is in negligible delay. Good, of how much? for the distance and the speed considered, it is not observable, not more than in a plane while flying all around the earth; it is a division comprising so much zeros at the divider than it is better to forget it. Explanation: the speed has compress the time (the traveller got less aged compared to those which did not travel). Try now a space flight in our galaxy, at a speed close to that of the light (300.000 km/sec), the phenomenon must become definitely perceptible. Could we so travel for a cure of rejuvenation ? alas not, one gains only comparing to those which did not move. I said it, all is relative !  have a nice day.

GPS, an example for the Einstein theory. The "Global Positioning, System" is based on measurements from several satellites, which it picks up waves (at least three sources for satellite radio triangulation, much more for better accuracy). The measures may not be good if time is measured throughout and at the same time, with great precision (same time everywhere). However, consistent with the theory of relativity stated for the first time by Einstein, the velocity shifts time. This explains the difference of the clocks "in the air" compared to "ground" which are not at the same speed (while in each place, they always mark the correct time!). , we must rectify. In other words, we can say that one is obliged to disrupt the same and extremely accurate clocks. Or those of the soil, or those "who go fast."


Physics 3 (the world and the life, viruses, cells ..)