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this page,    The World and the Life 1   nature and science, microworld

Extraordinary demonstration of the life Definition of the life, principles and living matter. Cells, microbes, proteins) -

The world and the life; a simple food for thought,  for giving a statute to the incomprehensible and to go beyond common simplifications.

Many questions are posed and one cannot even answer this child, who could have obstructed Fernand Raynaud, our regretted humorist, by putting the question: "why the cow which eats green grass has red blood and gives white milk".

When Isaac Newton was congratulated for his marvellous discovered, it answered "I am only one child who collected some stones on the shore. I did not even reach the ocean ".
Another famous scientist said while speaking about the virus of the prion "how organization so simple (..), learned how to cross the gap of the species, passing to the man. There is not so a long time hydrogen was an element and it is it still for much among us. It however has now eight different forms. We are not at the end of our sorrows.

- A "simple" seed can remain deeply sleeping during hundreds of years or more (thus it lives).

- During its hibernation the temperature of the marmot plummet at approximately five degrees Celcius.
In terms of building, one call that preventing freezing. With this temperature, certain vital functions are not assured any more (production of chemical products) and every three weeks, the marmot awakes completely during a few hour to reconstitute itself, taking back its normal temperature, then falls down to five degrees for another three weeks spell.

- the liver fluke, living being among the most elementary ones(..) live as follows : as it can only reproduce in the intestine of the sheep but not remain there for living, it is rejected by its excrements. Then arises the problem to the joung liver fluke at the time of reproduction. A group of fluke thus chatter on the ground and they meet an ant which keep itself cool safe from heat at the foot of grasses. They enter it (it is elementary my dear Watson!) and one of the fluke passes in the brain of the ant (it is now a little less elementary). But veiled that this one "takes control" of the ant and "drives it" so that she climbs at the top of grass in full heat, which is pure madness, keep thinking its congeneric while seeing it behaving like that. But why ? Because up there, the ant has a chance to be swallowed by a sheep !. It' not a dream, and some  the faultfinders push the assumption further and say : couldn't the man be concerned by such possibilities, when it becomes a little nutcase ?
The worm of crickets.
 One has just discovered that crickets, which seemed to commit suicide while plunging in water, in particular that of the swimming pools, were in fact infected by a worm. This worm devoures its interior by leaving him a minimum and by "controlling it" so that our phantom of cricket goes and plunge in the water. Because it is in this element that the worm, then of twelve millimetres, can then continue its development.
There would be others well of them.I bet there are so many other cases, like these américan films showing monsters bursting out of a human chest.
The worm of snail.
  This one settles inside a snail and get it acting inconsiderately, like our ant, i.e. that its antennas start to emit coloured undulations in open ground, which appear to strongly interest a certain bird. As a matter of fact, it is well what the worm is seeking, penetrating the bird to develop and reproduce itself.  Nobody dare to imagine the man concerned with such possibilities; perhaps when it becomes unforeseeable or a little nutcase?  therefore, there are already horrible things like the elephantiasis or the tapeworm which lays with profusion, filariose etc. Let us bet that there could be other cases, similar to one of these horrible American films, where one sees monsters poping out of the chest of a man.

The crocodile ; this crocodile of seven meters uses the propulsion of its tail to jump to two meters in height ! it thus catches birds in the branches.
A giant 6/7 meters crocodile of the Nile of ton wheight, man-eater, thwarted all the traps, of which a giant iron cage and powerful laces, despite vivid animals put in there to lure it. Some others smaller were trapped instead. 

- The bird, the man and honey ;   Africa : the man and the bird seek both honey; the man can take it, although if it is not without risk. The bird, do knows where is honey; when the man is seeking, the bird understand he is seeking honey and it draws his attention while jumping about on the branches and by indicating a first direction to him. The man knows the bird and follows it. When the man has taken the honey, he leaves a little amount for the bird. How that did it occur? by a common need, chance having  perhaps facilitated  a little the thing. (seen personally in one of these French documentary  which always fills us with wonder). the man will always have honey, excepted revolt of bees, which would have yet created the sting to defend their very coveted treasure. The bird will not have soon any more a forest. Perhaps it has already disappeared since this old documentary.

- Titmouses and their familiarities. When it see us, sometimes the titmouses come to flutter against our panes to draw our attention; hoping for some crumbs ? not always; our education remains to be made. We have got a box outside, opposite the bed room where the titmouses come sometimes make their nest. One day, the last baby had fallen at the time of its first take-off and we put it back in the box. Not only the titmouse observed me, but she returned to nourish it. After a new attempt of her kid, successful this time, she came around me at short distance, accomplishing some flights in the branches all around me during a few seconds. Since 1920, in England, the blue tit has gone "decapsulating" bottles of milk. She had learned to absorb the cream that goes to the surface. It seems that this technique has spread  elsewhere to other titmouses.

- The wounded bird ;   France : a bird is wounded; the poor makes feel pity seeing it with its broken wing, half turned over and scratching the ground ; however, while limping it flees and one can't catch it to help it. And due, the guy is full healthy, but its nest is in the surroundings with its eggs and it quite simply seeks to make diversion so that one moves away from there while following it !

- A not very gifted or really lazy bird will steal the adornments that another bird patiently placed in front of its own nest in the purpose to attract a beautiful female.

- Acacias make get away or even kill gazelles and goats which graze them too much. They can very quickly modify the composition of their sap and even communicate between them to inform of the danger.

- A lioness got great devotion for young gazelles ; only one each time, but she succeeded with in diverted several from their herd; she was quite unable to food them and each time it was the drama, because the gazelles tried to return to nourish themselves near its congeneric, with the supposed approval of the lioness, but each time the natural law made that the gazelle was expelled; it felt the lioness !   the managers of the park finally help.

- The victorious lion of a competitor kills all the babies of its lioness so that she can immediately recover her fruitfulness. The cat behaves occasionally in the same way.  They are not the only examples.

- A seagull claps its foot on the sand; the worms, believing to hear the undertow of the rising tide, get out, and make the happiness of its  she-seagull.

- A troop of geese fly with a man and his hang-glider.  In France, these geese which fly with a man practising the delta wing, following he in formation of flight, as if he were a mother. It is not known if they finds that a bit odd, but they do not appear to suffer from it.

 - females nurse the baby of their worst enemy; there are so much behaviors of this kind that the mythology does not even appear  so strange.

- Tree moves on its air roots when it is constrained. It grows on the bank of the Amazon river, close to its source ; for that, it makes push roots forwards and "forsakes" those of the back. It quite walks !

- Imitation, camouflage ; A flower wearied to see too many eggs laid on its leaves, has reproduced yellowish points on them to make believe that there are already too many eggs.
There are insects and fish which looks like branches, stones, leaves or algae, shells which stick algae on their back, orchises which have a bee or a bumblebee drawn on a petal to attract the bees, the giant butterfly Sphinx with death's-head which has a fakebumblebee under its belly to enter the hives and which whistles to frighten the birds, and then and then... (see life of the lagoon and extraordinary fish ).

By which magic that can it occur? I see only the action of the viruses, only able to add gene fragments coming from other species! but which would be thus their interest and which genes can draw the image of a whole animal? sometimes

 some of them onto to be camouflaged, those which wear gandy dresses (tropical seas), and so much of others which make themselves identify as plants ! and those which lure others in putting a false eye at their back and then, and then... (see lagoon life and fish extraordinary).

- Herpes virus moves in packs toward the point of the body by which it entered. The virus, which had infiltrated and then installed in the nervous cells of the spinal column without posing any problem, get migrating suddenly in packs. Surely disturbed by any cause, it moves towards the point of the body, mouth, sex, eye, by which it entered.  Without brain, neither senses, neither arm, neither feet nor fin, large as less than one micron, lost in the medium of a vastness of  mazes and of gigantic caves, it finds its way like the eel, the tortoise, the salmon in the ocean.

- The spider thread ; tugging on it, the wire of a spider is more resistant than best known materials: not the best steel as one could believe it, but the kevlar, which is also used to make bulletproof jacket. That is to say that soldiers, American ahead, went into breeding and weaving;  do not kill stupidly these small animals any more. It is said that a French would have tried to make gloves and socks with it. Without success apparently, what isn't astonishing considering the diameter of the wire.

- "Insects are never sick". Of course, one seeks to use this property. So, when are we going to be cloned with a spider ? what do you think about that, Madam ?  another question is immediately raising because a spider, with its four pair of legs, is not an insect !
- "A rain forest (tropical), like Amazonia, contains more species for each square meter than the whole of our French forests; only one tree can lodge up to 14.000 animal species (insects in particular I suppose). 80 % of the plants are poisonous there". Matter of a scientist during a night broadcast of France Culture. "volumes of carbon dioxide which is absorbed are unimaginable : what to largely suppress the ozone hole if we hadn't erased these forests of almost 80 % "(matter of a botanist, Amazonia, Ushuaia Of Nicolas Hulot).

-  Eggs of the cuckoo resembles to some other birds eggs and it is not by chance. Because the cuckoo surreptitiously will use their nests to lay there from 5 to 12 eggs and these birds will see beans. 50 "squatted" species are concerned like the warbler, the redbreast, the wagtail). What could only be a service becomes soon a drama because the egg of our young cuckoo hatches right before those of the squatted nest and hardly out, it employs all its energy to make them pass over the edge ! to undoubtedly profit from all the food. Genes are not a mere imagination.

- There is life where one expected it less : at the ocean floor, known to be without light and oxygen or so little (see extraordinary fish), there is much more life than it was thought since one fishes there from now on. At the bas of the rift, the fractures plates in the medium of the Atlantic, there is life close to toxic emissions to more than 100 ° (of which small shrimps). In lakes under layer of 1000 meters thickness ice and more (microbes). In the coolant circuit of the nuclear thermal power stations, certain microbes proliferate where the radiation was said to kill anything.

- A paper sheet flies in the wind. The person runs and almost manages to catch it but hop! a light gust carries it a little further. And so on three or four times at least. It is systematic and so amusing for the others. Bergson could have put it in its treaty on the laughter. A screw jumps; it goes immediately hidden itself. Untraceable! "do inanimate Objects, thus have a heart" ? our whining birch went by three times at least, to seek the key of the gate with its hanging branches swinging in the wind, tearing off it from his housing under a tile, then making it disappear in the hedge. With us, this key is always wedged! the key is admittedly provided with a very short hook. Is it angry because we cut its branches ? if you like funny stories but not really, which could be true but that we prefer to ignore, Bernard Werber will interest you. I specify however that my modest work is not a novel but reality.

- The cholera get a lethal massive overhelming diarrhea that run into the water supply and infect others, where there is no sanitry water, but may be a ditch running through the village. But when there was sanitary supply, the epidemic evolve to a milder form, enabling the victim to walk around  and spread it by contact, dirty linens, and so on. 


Reproduction, Life Expectation.

Reproduction. The cell splits to spawn and not die individually, but the number of duplications is limited, each division reduces their lifetime - an Escherichia coli  (cell) divides into two E. coli each half-hour or 6 at the end of one hour. Fungi such as "Candide", cells of a few thousandths of a millimeter, reproduce so quickly that the progeny of a single cell theoretically reach the volume of our planet earth in fifteen days ! - Red blood cells are generated in the bone marrow at 200 billion per day.

Lifespan. It is not easy to mesure the lifetime of animals due to events, most often violents, which shorten their life.
An about ten pounds lobster caught off Newfoundland, is 140 years old ; released, he should still live (according to "Marianne", January 2009) - A 410 years old clam has been found. His age is certified by the number of streaks of his shell. The scientist has "regretted" that the animal did not survive their investigation (they hoped to discover a secret of longevity, this monsters)

Clam, 220 years - Coquille St Jacques 2 years - periwinkle, 3 years - oyster, pearl 12 years and 50 years
Elephant, 30 - Camel, 30 - lion, age 10 - Rat, 3 (exception 6)
Fly, 15 days to 2 months ; there is no "familiar" fly that "stucks to us" long  -  spider, with its 26 years can scroll to see his offspring in many generations  - ant, a few weeks and ant Queen, 13 years  -  termite, 15 years - blues, 10  -  bugs, 1.5 years  -  louse, a few weeks
Slug, 1.5 years  -  bee, 10 weeks (exception 6 months)  -  ephemeral, 1 hours to weeks
Lizard, 14 year  -  Turtle, 20 years, giant land 200 years  -  snail, 1  -  cobra, 12 years
Sparrow, 10 (except 20)  -  Cock, 70  -  Swan, 30
Whale, 80 years  -  killer whale, 90 years  -  octopus, 4 years  -  tuna, 7  -  marine turtle, 88 years  -  Dolphin, 32 years
Tapeworm, 35 - silkworm (mulberry), 24 hours - ponogophore, invertebrate, could reach 200,000 years if we judge by the very slow growth of the tube in which he lives.
Red cells, three weeks to four months depending on the source - olfactory cells of the nose, one week, two to three days for the bowels (as published "Research") - neurons, for decades.

The principles selected here-after do not correspond to any official classification. They simply allow to expose certain reports considered to be particularly interesting ; as well could we have chosen some others.

The first principle ;  life is pitiless, because the sole rule for the majority of the living beings is to eat and be eaten. Also they have an intelligence of the life and means of defence, including plants against animal. The strongest, most cute, most resistant, best armed or the luckiest  remains longer in life than the others. It is always the rule for us, plus the power of technology (good or bad). Among the luckiest count those which were not wounded (a wounded baby is abandoned because his mother can't lick it all the day long because she must go on and search for food). Those which are at the top of the scale can always be caught by "the tiny and microscopic" ones. the egg of seagull is hardly open that an army of tiny ticks enter (family of the spiders) and starts to suck the blood of the new born, frequently until death.

The man does not give any chance to what it cultivates, raises or continues (fishing, drives out). He has nearly got rid of all his predatory on the earth, excepted the "the tiny and microscopic".                           

The second principle; for reproducing themselves, as far as possible, living beings choose the partner which with they agree the best ; this complex choice  would be in fact a subjective evaluation to secure both a numerous and healthy descent. To reproduce in its turn, the victorious male kills sometimes all the preceding new born, which makes immediately the female fertile again (example as of lions, but also cats !). That appears as a monstrous cruelty to us but sometimes things are not very different for humans. Occasionally, and by lack of anything better, the living being is not it very selective the species with which it couples. Examples do not miss especially with the mammals, the best known ones; (human, dogs, goats, dolphins.)

- Ovum and spermatozoon ; research on the behaviour of the ovum and the spermatozoon showed that, opposed to what it was believed hitherto, it is not the fastest or the strongest who is accepted, but a favourite because there would be as a holding circuit before the thing is done ; conclusion of the study, does the ovum choose its spermatozoon ? (all the same among the first ).

Could there be such a selection at the plants? nothing makes it supposed, but that could well become a day.



The third principle; the copulation between individuals of relationship insufficiently far away in ascendance, can cause genetic anomalies (ex, deformation of the hip for the Breton ones). In fact, instinctively or voluntarily, it is the choice from the foreigner who prevails; thus, the female dog of the sledge will disappear going to join a wolf, then coming back to its group; the Boss usually encourages this union to improve his livestock. In certain groups or small tribes, usage wants (or wanted) that a woman "is offered" to the traveller. It is acknowledged now that this use, in addition to hospitality, makes it possible to introduce new genes into a very isolated group.

The fourth principle; from its conception to its birth, the living being (in any case mammals), passes by the former stages of its species evolution. Of what we can see, one is initially tadpole, then batrachians (webbed ends), monkey. That is to say one preserves in us "all the characteristics of the animal lives which marked out our evolution". Of that past remain vestiges of disappeared bodies, like the nails for the claws, the coccyx for the tail or pineal body (epiphysis), at the top of cranium, evoked sometimes for a third eye on the head.

From its conception to the end of his life, the living being (in any case mammals), bathes in liquids (of which blood) which reproduce, in proportion, the characteristics of the ocean whose ancestor left (trace elements, very close rate of salinity..). It has been carried the sea with him.
Humour ?
one says to us we are descent from a kind of mouse,  well before the branch of the monkeys . If monkeys (chimpanzee, bonobo) shares with us almost the totality of our genes, their bodies are not compatible with us. The animal which offers a very great compatibility for transplant is an animal which we appreciate particularly well : the pig!   I don't know if the fœtus passes by the stages of the mouse and the pig.

The fifth principle; what' is living does not want to die, including micro beings with their sole very small cell, even the viruses, all famous for not having brain, memory and intelligence; scientists are astonished that such "so simple" beings can produce in their back yards transformations which enable them to resist our attacks (antibiotic..) and to jump for example from an animal to the man like the prion made, which was hitherto regarded as unthinkable. But of the "unthinkable" new ones, science does not stop any more noting some. "It was believed hitherto that, but.." became a pitiful litany. What exactly are thus these microphone and mini beings there ? they have according to any appearance the intelligence of the life, which is a very big thing. They fight and invade if they can just like we do; they eat in their own manner and expel their waste. These are  what is sometimes dangerous for us : excrements !  the living being spends all their forces to counter its own disappearance and to resist the threat, the disease, the lack of food or the other living beings ! that depends obviously on the species, the individuals and the circumstances.

Cannibalism; let us come back to a more human scale; the most extreme solutions in our souls can be considered, like eating or drinking all that one finds (wood, leather, lichen, its own excrements, its own urine). Cannibalism is another solution and was very often practised. Let us note that this cannibalism is omnipresent in us, in forms which one thinks of being very amusing : to a child one says "I will eat you" and one chew slightly his skin; there are also songs for children, always horrible ("the Little Red Riding Hood", or in French, "it was a small ship"). The host is the blood and the body of Christ, therefore Christ is eaten. Christ takes sometimes the shape of a lamb which will be sacrificed and eaten (the origin of the lamb of god/agnus dei is as follows: Jewish Passover celebrates the release of the Jewish Egypt people and one sacrifices a lamb to this occasion : Egyptian children were butchered at night before and those of the Jews saved thanks to the blood of a lamb passed on their door, which identified them).

Conflict situation ; according to a study of professor Laborit, that it had translated in a film a few tens years ago, the living being which does not find any solution to a crucial problem, i.e. which is confronted to a situation he/it cannot absolutely support, reacts according to a process in three steps. The first step is the anger, which aims to intimidating or moving away what disturbs; for example, one tries to make fear so that the other changes attitude or disappears or one breaks or throws the punishable material; in the worst case, one tramples it or one breaks all that is on hand, without distinction. It is thus not rare that anger is exerted on an object or a person which does not have nothing to do with, especially if the object of its anger is away, inaccessible or too dangerous. A woman thus almost demolished the car of the neighbor instead of that of her husband, because it had infortunately the same color, no matter the model. All means authorized by its own morals will be used (various facts abound in examples and the high politics level, especially at the international level, use the most extreme solutions; for example, Allende was assassinated on a proposal of Kissinger to make Pinochet président). If this this elimination cannot be done, the second phase is the escape; if the escape is impossible, the living being which does not find any solution for getting disappear  its problem commits suicide (or lets itself die). One often quotes the example of the scorpion which pricks itself when it is surrounded by flames. Each one its problem, each one its level of appreciation. Some always have some, others almost never. an American who had been disturbed by the construction of a factory close to his workshop, after a special modification of the plan of occupation of the grounds due to the mayor, locked up himself in his workshop, armoured a bulldozer and demolished the factory, the town hall, the residences of certain city council men etc. Nobody could stop it with the shielding; it then committed suicide inside the machine (after the phase of anger, it could not consider the continuation of its life because its problem had in fact worsened).

I found a book of Jacques Bergier on the life, which tried in the Sixties to give the definition of it; It would have five characteristics: the first is irritability (sensitivity and reaction to the external medium (light, its, odour, heat, radiation.); the second is the nutrition (the living being takes the matter it needs in the external medium; the third is the breathing (need for oxygen for the animals, carbon dioxide for the plants or other elements; the fourth is the excretion (elimination of that which one does not need more); finally, the fifth characteristic, the growth and the reproduction, which should however be distinguished and to make two of them form my opinion.

Enough surprisingly, according to the author, the fire would meet all these characteristics !  it would be thus a form of life, which dies out when it cannot feed any more. Is this for that that fire fascine so much ?  fact is that fire is ready to burn everywhere and at any moment and that our sidereal world is only fire (stars, of which the sun).
Many exceptions make that one or other characteristic enumerated can be missing in many cases of observed examples of life , as this crystallized virus that can be a rock; the viruses are living beings, responsible as well as possible for our colds and at worst for poliomyelitis or cancers, without speaking about very stun but little spread and unceasingly renewed diseases, because it is also that, the life. However these viruses can be also simple (..) proteins, i.e. chains of amino acids.

We don't know much about them because they are not observable, due to their dimension scale.  So, we generally simplifie them at nothing or  few.

It seems well that atoms molecules which constitute living beings are the same ones as those of the inert matter, (metals, stones, plastic, various products).
And breathtaking that on all small scale, the matter (thus us) is completely transparent, therefore non-existent, considering an atom brought back to the size of the place of "la Concorde" in Paris, is a mere balloon placed at the centre with some oranges rotating at the edge. It is vacuum. Let us return on our scale of life. See also " atoms" for another astonishing view.

One know to manufacture organic compounds. the first has been the urea, then albumin, large protein molecule ; but still not in live, despite both the enormous pressure and temperature constraints to which they were subjected (temperatures and pressure are supposed to have conditioned the appearance of the life according to certain hypothesis, but there are other of them, including the most radical proposal that it came from the universe by the meteorites, as well as water, which does not explain anything more).
One always starts with this famous oil drop on water,an oil that water does not manage to dissolve whereas it dissolves practically all (even iron by oxidizing it); while supplementing it using special proportioned mixtures (olive oil (?), gasoline, detergent of soda, aniline black, distilled water, one managed to create pseudo molecules called colpoïds, close to the infusorians (*) alive, but not completely. Rush too your furnaces !
infusorians stem from the fact that they were observed inside a cup of tea herbs.

Cells, animalcules molecules, protozoa, microcoques, yeasts; bacteria, virus; proteins, enzymes.

The cell.  Cells are small: from 1 micron to 75 microns (thousandth of millimetre), generally around 20 microns.
How much they are in a human being ? in a whale? to tell the truth, we cannot apprehend these gigantic: would it be interesting to know how much there are sand grains in the Sahara? or on planet? or of animalcules in the layer of limestone of a mountain ?

It is true that the spermatozoïdes (gamètes) of the sperm of a man are a few hundreds of millions, of which 200 units will reach the ovule.  But there are giant cells, like the egg yolk (it is a cell, with its membrane and its core).

There are million of million cells for thousandths of gram of matter, whereas a "typical" molecule itself consists of 10 follow-up of 25 zero, elementary particles (the atoms) ! Said also 10 power 25 (i.e 1025)

One knows his core, his filaments, his "jelly", his selective membrane with his mysterious exchanges by "osmosis" (osmosis is the faculty of a membrane to let get in or get out certain elements and not of others; what one could compare with the positive or negative "ions" which attract or repulse each other in electricity, in batteries, transistors etc). It dissimulates many other mysteries to be discovered. The cells of our body have also the property to be a kind of a magnet; in producing a related electromagnetic field with the radiation of the sun and those of the radio/TV/cellular phones/micro-waves. By using this property, medicine obtains images by called magnetic resonance  said "IRM". One is placed in a tube in which a very powerful magnetic field "excites" our cells to make them visible by the apparatus. One hears very powerful blows and vibrations which come from the creation of electromagnetic impulses. The process imposes preliminary serious checks (no ferrous metal grain in the head, the eyes because they could cause lesions (the prostheses are not concerned).

The cell contains all the genetic manufacturing code of an individual  (two chromosomes contain sub molecules ARN and ADN which is the "schedule of conditions" of the manufacture of our body, a titanic program). the ADN (acid desoxyribonucleic and the ARN (acid ribonucleic), carrying genes, reproduces themselves inside the cell, just like viruses which live and thus reproduce. The cells are small: from 1 micron to 75 microns (thousandth of millimetre), generally around 20 microns. The human being is composed with housands or million billion of them ! there are however giant cells, like the egg yolk (it is a cell, with its membrane and its core).

The genome of the amoeba has been just deciphered. "the genome of this protozoon, equipped with a relatively short genome, appears infinitely more complex than envisaged. The amoeba during ages, would have thus integrated genes of the bacteria which it drives out from where its extraordinary skill to fool the immune system of its victims.

The number of genes contained in our chromosomes is the subject of periodic readjustments and would be plummeting ; 100.000  in the nineties, then 35,000, and 25,000 in 2004 (..). So, we would have nearly 25.000 genes, like a certain worm or a chicken, with  which we share a common ancestor (there are some other). They are useful genes and total genes. There are said "basic pairs" formed by  chemical  parts numbering 1 million. As for the poplar tree, it would get 40.000 genes (..) which however has a genome 40 times smaller than the pine has. Men wouldn't be this superior being ? . All that is not quite clear. But genes would intervene only partially on heredity or diseases.

The cell duplicates to reproduce itself and does not die individually, but the number of duplications is limited: a colon bacillus (cell) is divided into two colon bacilli every half an hour, that is to say 6 at the end of one hour!  Other cells live one week (olfactive cells of the nose).
A few cells, taken on an embryo or certain parts of the body, have the faculty to divide into two different cells, like "the mother", for example a muscular cell and another of different category, for example a cell of the heart. One tries to control this faculty for manufacturing cells we wished.

Unicellular animalcules : molecule, protozoa, microcoques, yeasts. The microbes (from mikrobios, with a short life), would have been an umbrella term at the beginning for the unicellular animalcules, by designating more particularly perhaps the ones giving infections; one speaks now of the detailed varieties: bacteria, virus, yeasts, mushrooms. One speaks however about microbiology.
Note: at the smallest size of the scale (..), there are atoms; they constitute the elements like iron, oxygen, carbon. One switches then to the molecules, which gather a certain number of atoms according to various arrangements: they form the made up bodies like water (two molecule of hydrogen H2 and one of oxygen O make H2O), salt,  oil ; one speaks about "molecule" for a drug, allergies.

Molecules are chemical bodies which would not be alive beings, whose would start with the cell and perhaps its contents (plants and animals in the whole).
Certain cells are "wandering"; they can be useful, neutral or harmful as we saw higher (digestion). These particular cells of the microbial world are installed both in the vegetable world (algae and mushrooms) and in the animal world: the protozoa of which amoebas, known for their damage in the intestine, hématozoaires, whipped, ciliés, Foraminifera.). Their form or their characteristics often determines the name of their group: protozoa (of proto, first meaning here simple, and zôo, animal), microcoques (spherical), bacteria, bacillus (from baktêria and bacillus, stick), vibrios (curved or spiral), ciliés (provided with "lashes" allowing them to move) ; Others are filamentous.
Don't forget that a minus mushroom is at the origin of antibiotics.

 Yeast ; they are unicellular mushrooms, quoted above. Don't dream at chanterelle or cepe ina frying pan, but like their (big) cousins, they need good conditions of temperature and moist to develop.  Without yeast (which is alive), the bread would not raise, just like without "the mother" (a terrible magma of these micro small beasts), the wine would not become vinegar. The roll is long.

The virus lives and reproduces inside the cell; how did it arrive there? it is often a mystery. and a true combat. For example, birds have a perfectly integrated flu virus which does not pose any problem to them. To date, they cannot be transmitted directly to the man, but it would be possible while passing by the pig. The viruses are retransmitted by contact, like that of the ebola and are activated when certain conditions are gathered : for the ebola, it would be the rain season in Africa (November), i.e moisture. For that of herpes, it would be the stress, of events related to the season, or a weakening. This last, which had infiltrated and installed in the nervous cells of the spinal column without posing problems, migrates then in bulk towards the point of the body, mouth, sex, eye, by which it entered.

Viruses are 100, 1000 or 10000 times smaller than an average cell, for those which one knows. The virus is protected by its small size (*) and one more knows it by his effects than by chattering with him. It is its envelope protein, true camouflage, which enables him to pass unperceived. One can fight them only by vaccination, by cultivating weakened viruses which will activate our own immune system.  One thus knows only the viruses and other alive beings of this scale that when they appear and if one succeeded in identifying them. They are generally visible using an electron microscope. (according to a professor of the Pasteur Institute, night broadcast of France culture, 18 01 05). See below too.

(*) with a size of less than one micron, the virus passes through the porcelain and cannot be thus filtered.

Without membrane but wrapped in protein, a virus is a sub cell which have only one acid or ADN, or ARN). "Cells and virus are indissociable and generally live in symbiosis, the genetic fragment of code of a virus which can perfectly be integrated into the ADN of the cell and thus indissociable".

Viruses which are not integrated into the ADN of a cell do not have a system of control and goes under a different protéin envelop to each reproduction ; they are by this fact very difficult to identify. This property explain the constant renewal of the vaccine of the influenza".

Any action against the viruses is thus very difficult, we know that. If a virus illness occur (influenzas, anginas, paludism, AIDS.), it is useless to absorb antibiotics which weaken the body at a time when one needs forces. At the contrary, antibiotics are effective against bacteria and angina bacterian type can be treated with.

In addition to their narrow form and their small size (1 micron), bacteria are cells whose core is diffuse; they are stick shaped but they have the two sub molecules of ADN and ARN.

Bacteria (with viruses) are used "to graft" a gene on an ADN (genetic modification); three different bacteria are necessary: that which contain the gene, that which will receive it to carry it in it and that which "will graft it" on the ADN to be modified.
It has been observed that bacteria used to go towards food and tend to gather when food is lacking. In fact, they behave like being alive for them, that they are, without mouth, eyes, nose, hands, brain.

Bacteria surprise us by their resistance; it is admitted that they survive at great planetary catastrophes, with a good number of other microscopic and tiny, less vulnerable than the more massive beings ; the discovery here-after, that I deliver under any reserve, would certify it: "a bacterium which had slept for 32.000 years in the frosty ground of Alaska, close to a mammoth husk, was thawed out by the researchers of the NASA and started to swim under the microscope. "Sciences and Avenir", 04 2005.
Two bacteria make curdle the milk which becomes yoghourt; to be entitled to name yoghourt, there must be at least 10 million bacteria per gram of milk. Yes, you read well (the Barber, 20 2005). Our cheeses would not be formed without them.

Protozoa , microcoques (algae, mushrooms), bacteria, viruses, all of these unicellular microscopic animalcules infect us occasionally with theirs being living wastes, called toxins, which are in fact poisons.

Protids, proteins, Prion and ADN: the protids are nitrogen and carbon compounds which constitute chains of amino acids, what does not clarify relly the subject; let us say that that would not be cells (thus neither "microbes", neither bacteria, nor virus), but of the molecules, i.e. groupings of atoms forming elemnts of organic chemistry. Protids are of very variable sizes and forms, largest being entitled to protein name (the name comes from Protée, a Greek god of the sea whose form changed constantly). They can be spherical, egg shapped (ovoid), fibrous, twisted (cord), helical.
The basic protein is by excellent the white of egg, almost "pure albumin" and whitewish; because the protides/proteins form a more or less gelatinous solution whitewish with water; one can thus detect its presence of urea in the urines.
If glucides are primarily energy (the sugars consumed by the muscles), if lipids indicate the whole of greases (envelopment, reserves of energy),  Proteins are the construction material of the living beings (Quid 2005).  There are in milk, meats, fish, but also in the plants of course, the fibres (silk), in seeds (from 60 to 80 %) and especially the soya which is the  richest plant in creatin, near to the fish (the Japanese adore both).
In the muscles, they are in shape of spiral springs, thus being able to contract under the effect of a signal and to produce a movement. The flesh are reinforced by keratin; there are in our organs (suprarenals, misses, pancreas, liver, heart, lungs, where they regulate the exchanges of oxygen, in blood (haemoglobin). In the cores of the cells, the proteins take part in the development of the ADN (nucléoprotéines). In our nasal mucous membrane, they are specialized to detect the odors (with each one its odor). The proteins have many talents.

Prion; it would be a protein or a compound proteinic, that is to say that that would not be an animalcule but rather a product of organic chemistry, a gifted element but specialized and repetitive faculties, thus rather passive. the problem is that the prion would have evolved to pass from the animal to the man. What appeared unthinkable and would get it "alive". One doesn't know anymore what is alive or not.

Enzymes They are proteins which play a role like a catalyst. They facilitate chimical reactions which could not run in the present conditions. It is somehow little the principle of the catalytic converter, which at high temperature, facilitate the destruction of unburnt gases. Enzymes in detergents, were "eating" the dirtiness, yoghourts "bio" include alive fermenting agents which supplement our "intestinal flora" a pretty word for this small world without it, we would dye.  

The unicellular animalcules and the tiny ones are everywhere per billions of billions. In all water, in the soil, the air, in all the alive beings, the micro and mini organisms pullulate (of which various and varied microbes: 2.500.000 per cubic centimeter ground on the surface, 23.000 to two meters of depth, nothing with 6 meters; 50 in spring water, 500 in water of very good quality, 200.000 in the gulf of Naples but 10 off shore (old stats), their number believes considerably in the rivers downstream the cities; very often living without disturbing, they have their utility; at the man, they mills about especially in the intestine where them role for the transformation of the food is of primary importance, whose "coli communis" or the the least liked bacterium Escherichia coli which one measures the content in water of bathe and of which some rare forms (0157: H7) can be lethals, the majority of the cases coming from rotting meat, the E. coli producing then its worst toxin answering the name of shigelle. 300 to 500 children die from each year in the USA ( (novelist ex doctor Robin Cook "toxines"). Paradoxically, "they deal" with our waste but poison us with theirs !  Enzymes detergents ate dirtiness, the yoghourts "bio" supplement with alive leavens our "intestinal flora", a quite pretty word for this small this small world without which we would die.

Protozoa, microcoques (algae, mushrooms), bacteria, viruses, all these useful animalcules unicellular infect us occasionally by their waste of alive beings, called toxins, which are in fact of the poisons.

They can resist unthinkable constraints (one found some in the coolant circuit of nuclear thermal power stations, where radiations must kill everything,  they proliferate there!. Sterilization by heat requires temperatures higher than 120 degrees Celcius for twenty minutes.

Enormous tiny ones;  the flea would be at the origin of the bubonic plague: they can thus make a lot of evil. If many insects are listed, there are also larvae and worms.
In New York, the rabbis rose of the presence of the Copepoda in water; they are micro shellfish very useful for its purification because they take care of other much more dangerous species for us. (hebdo Marianne, June 2004). Everyone knows the arachnidans, which infests mattresses, carpets or curtains. Seen under the microscope, they are true monsters worthy a horror film. Thus goes the life.

The world and life 2 - solid, fluid, gaseous - plant mineral, animal.

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