PC in a few words - Knowledge of Windows : background, - Multiple windows, setting them) - Deskboad, files and documents, manipulating them.. - Bottom box with start button, opened files, usual one click files, notifications..
Computer (loading time, Email, search function, disk clean, sound card...) - Safeguard Viruses - E-Mail - Search function
Send to scheduled Tasks - Memo - Icons - Sound card
Recovering files hidden Files - Shifting My Documents -
Suppressing inopportune functions of Windows - Restrict loading time - Speed up Windows - Free disc and RAM memory - Temporary files -
Computer help ! - Pedals (for games)
The PC in a few words. It is common to describe a computer by distinguishing two very different sets, the "hard" and the "soft".
Hard Hard is the "physical" electronic equipment, i. e. for the interior of our PC, a power supply, memories (RAM, hard disks), the "motherboard" and its processor (CPU in English, central processor), computer in French, also called "the chip" (chip in English).
The motherboard connects this processor/computer to the "peripherals" of the PC or, in addition to the interior already mentioned, everything connected to it externally, DVD, USB sticks, SD cards, sound and microphone outputs, etc.).
How? by different links called "buses" (from the Latin omnibus, "for all", which history has linked to a vehicle of transport).
Even if it goes to great lengths (...), the processor cannot face all of them at the same time. We therefore distribute our instructions/information on "buses" with the stick! In fact, under the action of a clock, a kind of extra fast metronome, which opens up access to the buses in turn. Incredible, but it goes fast: millions of bytes per second to a hard disk, and much more to RAM static memories!
practical conclusion: when a USB stick is connected, it must wait for its "turn to pass", called "IRQ" (interruption). And everything works in this way cyclically, programmatically or otherwise, either flows of groups of pulses.
A soft called "machine language". exists of origin because it would be impossible to code the pulses, considering the necessary number.
To summarize, a PC works with binary codes, i.e. a Morse code (current not current of variable lengths) but wth "giga speed" instead of seconds.
Each group has a predetermined meaning, as A, B, C.. for Morse but far more richer in possibilities due to the speed (Morse couldn't even transmit the size or the colour).
A first layer of instructions coded "machine" allows to assemble in elementary functions all this so numerous groups (programming language).
Another layer of more intuitive instructions was added later, when the memories became of sufficient size, constituting an operating system.
After a first attempt by IBM, a so-called operating system, has been popularized by Apple, the revolution with icons to click on the screen, then by Windows, largely open to software creators, more hackable also, decked with practical software more or less honestly.
Popular computing has started modestly with "Multiplan"! (calculation table)
Microsoft was able to impose the flawed Windows, pushing manufacturers to sell fully equipped PCs, which was waiting for neophite users.
NOTE: All computers are referenced on the network and cannot be legally modified. You can only change your local name with the operating system (in Windows for example), and replace letters and numbers with "annoys me" or "sweet bike".
PC Booting. Can we differentiate between PC and Windows booting?
The PC "boot" to load its operating system (several can be put on the same PC).
Beforehand, it performs its own check list, including that of the RAM memories, a test that can be avoided, and allows the display of start-up options, information and various adjustments (processor, discs, etc.), all this is obtained by pressing one or two keys quickly after the power-up.
After this time, Windows starts loading and also offers boot options in case of difficulties. This is then another key, for example F8 for me. It is then possible to choose a start with reduced display, or by checking sequences, taking the last correct configuration, without checking the drivers (Win 10) etc.
desktop and headband
Windows displays a "Desktop" and a horizontal banner/headband at the bottom, called "Taskbar".
By a click right, I personnally shifted this taskbar/headband on the right (in black). For now and all is going on.
The "desktop" is the display space for images, videos or programs, each appearing in a "window".
These juxtaposed or superimposed windows are the very foundation of Windows. When installed, the desktop is covered by a background image and at least there is "the basket".
Depending on the brand of the PC, different documents or programs are represented by their "shortcuts".
We can then add others according to our needs.
A little more vocabulary: "Program". It is a set of computer instructions that allow you to draw, view, calculate etc (e.g. Word, to write). Other names, "software", "application" or "executable". Note that the names of programs usually end with".exe", like this one: "write.exe"; if the extension .exe is hidden, we only see "write". The appearance can be modified (I prefer to see them). A program works with "data",
which are assembled in a "File" (written pages, a bank account, a photo, a video...). "Folder". Represented by a yellow pictogram, it is a grouping of files or software, equivalent to a filing of papers in a folder, made of cardboard..
. Practical: to change the size of the desktop icons, press the "control" key (Ctrl), then turn the mouse wheel. This principle can also be used to adjust the size of a text or photo (depending on the software)
The desktop can be right-clicked on a free area, which allows you to make settings for the display (parameters: screen size, light etc).
Touch mode. The right mouse click of the classic PC is replaced like this: place the fingertip on the clickable element with link, for about a second: a thin frame then surrounds the element, and when the finger is removed, a list appears !! a tap of the finger on an item in this list, opens it !
The taskbar. It is located at the bottom of the screen, but can be positioned vertically, left or right, a placement I have adopted because its access is easier and the screen, much wider than high, more balanced.
Exercise: 1/ right-click on an empty space of the taskbar (without registration/ or icon). Touch mode, put your finger down for a second. A "menu" is available in which "lock taskbar" appears; click on it to unlock if necessary or lock (touch mode, touch, tap).
2/ Now click with the left button without releasing it (touch mode, leave the finger on) and move the taskbar to the right or left according to your preference. Release the button, click on the new bar again to lock it. The explanations and
The following drawings apply to a vertical bar placed on the left or right.
The taskbar starts, in the first position, with the "start" menu , i.e. the "Windows" icon with its four coloured or white symbolic windows.
Left click on "start" in Win 7, opens two distinct menu areas, only one of which, the left, accepts to receive programs of our choice! (executable ending with".exe" or".msc".).
This icon/window also reacts to the little known right mouse click. Think about it on any occasion!
Note that this "start" click is reproduced on the keyboard , towards you and to the left. It is faster and more useful when the banner is no longer visible.
Touch mode. Tablet under Win 10 in mixed mode (Win 7 taskbar remains). A tap of the finger on "start" corresponds to the left mouse click, and the block of colored frames of windows 10 is displayed.
A press and hold of about one second on "start" corresponds to the right click, and a list partially containing Win 7 is displayed. The "file explorer" partially replaces the "computer" of Win 7, in addition to being more complete.
Below "Windows/Start", the taskbar displays various programs from the beginning, which can be completed, and then an area in which the programs currently running are recalled,
an empty zone, a zone (keyboard (Fr or En), a so-called "notification" zone (alerts... miscellaneous info); let's take a breath because the whole thing is a little rough and delicate.
top with a left click, or by right-clicking on the file name "file name.exe".
Win7/10 allow this, by offering two choices, start menu or taskbar.
Taskbar end. a "drop-down menu" for printer, sound, Internet, security, USB keys etc. Finally, the date and time, and the calendar.
The inflation of icons can be abused, and it is better to learn to remove them because some downloaded programs assume the right to install one or more reminders there.
By clicking on an icon, a folder or a program, you open one or more "windows". Each window has an upper banner and at least one column on the right. These windows are stackable, movable and of adjustable size.
Let's look at the window on the left, with a purple background that partially covers another white window, currently "inactive".
At the top, a strip, here in grey, runs along the window. The green dot I placed there means that if you hold a mouse click on the left side anywhere on the color, the whole window is moveable. This only if the window does not completely fill the office space (case shown here). Touch mode. By placing your finger slightly on this grey band and pulling immediately, you can move the window with your finger.
At the right of this green point follow three yellow-green vertical, each one spoting an underneath sign . First of all, a minus signal; by clicking on it, the window disappears and will be placed on hold in the taskbar.
Then follows a square which allows you to enlarge the full screen window or reduce it to an adjustable size. Touch mode. tap on these signs. If you can make it full screen or reduce it automatically, the size adjustment seems limited to me (only by pulling on the left side???)
Let's start by reducing the width: place the mouse line very slowly anywhere on the top edge, to the left of my red dot; the same goes for reducing the height, but on the vertical edge, below the red dot.
To vary simultaneously the two sides of the window, which is quite delicate, you have to place the mouse line very precisely in the corner, on the red point; a double diagonal arrow appears? it is won, and you click, without releasing.
The mouse can then be moved in all directions.
The right part of the header ends on a cross located in the right corner, allows to close the window, which disappears.
Move the reading into the document. This is an important point: when the text goes beyond the frame, many users do not think about the possible hidden part of a photo or document, and consequently, may not find the famous "OK" that will send !
However, in these cases, arrows and a slide/cursor appear, either vertically to the right of the frame, or horizontally at the bottom of the frame, or both. Five possibilities to reveal the hidden parts:
- 1/ by clicking on the up or down arrows (at the top, do not click on a cross !) - 2/ by a click held on the vertical or horizontal slide/cursor, then dragging it
(see this sliding signal indicated by a blue dot in the representation of the windows)
- 3/ by clicking in the document, then acting on the mouse wheel. Note: subject to software compatibility, some mice allow
tilt the wheel to the left or right, which moves the document to one side or the other
- 4/ by clicking and holding on the non-displayed side, for example on a text, then moving the mouse to the edge; the text is underlined, but once the edge is reached, the document scrolls.
- 5/ in a recent or similar PDF document, by clicking on the document, which makes a "directional" circle appear, the simple movement of the mouse, not clicked, upward,
the bottom, or one side, scrolls the document with a variable speed, controlled with the mouse.
Prefer the "Start Windows" key on the keyboard (bottom left), to click on the identical "Start" icon on the taskbar (it's more convenient and faster).
Keep in mind that the "Enter" key (the largest key with a large arrow to the left, is equivalent to clicking on an "OK" key. This "enter" key, which reminds us of the "cart return" lever on typewriters, actually executes a line break when typing text.
For convenience, you can use "keyboard shortcuts" when you want to copy (Ctrl + C), paste (Ctrl + V), cut (Ctrl + X), or search (Ctrl + R). "Ctrl" (Control), is a key on the keyboard, towards you, in its left corner.
Windows offers the possibility to create our own shortcuts, which simplify frequent access (not processed here).
Good to Know. With its various display software, Windows automatically adjusts photos to the size of the screen or another size.
We may not see that the photo is actually much larger, at least in number of pixels (but not necessarily for a printer!) On this subject, see the rest at the end of the page (pixels, display, printer, sensors...).
Here is a first explanation: my screen has a "color point" dimension (pixels) of 1920 x 1080 pixels, or 2,073,600 pixels. My camera can take pictures up to 16 million pixels. Nealy height times the surface of the creen !!
To see it in its true screen size, you have to open it with an image software like "Paint", which is available with Windows.
Through my own experience and what I observe around me, it is certain that the display of Windows and its countless scattered settings, often remain quite enigmatic for the layman.
Which, unfortunate Ignotus, does not even know how to carry out manipulations considered elementary. So here is a presentation of what we should know, of increasing difficulty.
First of all, see clearly! . The apparent size of the font depends on many "technical", and physiological factors!
In short, a size defined for example by 12 points on the page, will appear large if the definition of the chosen screen is low (minimum of 800 by 600), if the screen is large (23 inches), near us (less than 50 cm) and our perfect view.
With a 1920 by 1080 definition, or more, a 12-inch screen at a distance of 60 cm, and 50 years old, you can no longer see anything!
It is not at all obvious a priori that the higher the screen definition, the smaller the elements appear. Nor that a small screen can have the same definition as a large one, and that we must therefore look at it more closely!
1/ Ocular fatigue. Even with a young person's sharp eyesight, permanent accommodation due to the fixation of the screen can induce fatigue and eye disorders.
I recommend, and I am not alone, to buy cheap over-the-counter glasses for about ten euros,. How to choose? Measure the distance from your eyes to the screen,
then put yourself at the same distance from a sign written in the store and choose among the "glasses" of 0.5 to 3 diopties, the pair that will allow you to see most comfortably.
If you have a particular vision defect, superimpose your two glasses or go to your optician and explain the case (and the desired distance).
Don't let him decide alone, because he will sell you variable ones (varilux type) or expensive special filter glasses. You need Lenses correcting your particular defect (strabismus etc.), but simple for the rest, only adjusted for distance.
2/ Windows settings. Background colours, fonts (fonts) and frames have a direct influence on legibility (avoid bright colours and strong contrasts),
and especially the complementary colours that disturb the view and can go as far as discomfort (for me, the most embarrassing are red and blue side by side or worse, in alternating stripes).
Let's start with the "start" key on the keyboard ("Windows" icon, bottom left), the start menu."is displayed.
in the list, choose - Advanced system settings: Visual effects... (to your taste, shadows, animations... prefer simplicity; any fantasy of display,
in addition to its possible inconvenience - for me, the shadows under the characters of the desktop icons - penalize the activity of the processor).
and also,- Display, to adjust the resolution (size in pixels of the screen, colors, brightness, text size etc.) There are variations between the different versions of Windows.
Up to Windows XP and 7 to a certain extent, it is possible to adjust the frame colors (borders...) independently,
of the fonts, as well as the zoom of the screen (which enlarges the fonts (if the software is at level). Windows 10, which combines Win 7 and tablet no longer allows these complex settings but allows, not only to set - by fixed steps -
the text zoom for documents displayed on the desktop, but also the text size of icons, title bars, menus, message boxes, tooltips..
Win10. Try cliking this "settings" , or system (clik right on start Win figure)
you will find for display and others.
A panorama of photos in the background of the desk! Access to the display settings can also be obtained by right-clicking on a free area of the desktop.
This command allows you to define the size of the desktop icons - also adjustable by Ctrl (control) plus the mouse wheel - but above all to implement a scrolling, in the background of the desktop,
of favorite photos or images (instead of a color). I have adjusted their replacement every 30 minutes
But where is this/my program? . There are thousands of them everywhere. Windows in place a lot in... Windows, and especially in its System32 and System directories, for it to work! There are also some directly at the root, like Windows itself. What is the root? The root is C, i.e. the apparently empty disk, without an operating system, but with an invisible and important computer software called "machine". So, at the root is written C:/Windows C:\Program Files(X86), C:\ProgramData, C:\Program. You have to see this: click on computer, or on program explorer and you will see a list including "local disk C". Click on it and you will find what I just said. Of course it is not written C:/, but you are in "C" and you see what is directly on it. This makes it possible to make the link between writing and physical representation. If you now click on Windows, you will see folders and files that are no longer at the root!
I said inaccessible, but that's not quite true, because there's an intermediate interface, the "DOS", to which Windows gives access.
Windows also places software, as well as yours, far from the root, such as C:\Users\Guy\AppData\Roaming. Including, for example, shortcuts to programs launched at startup: Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu\Programs. This makes seven successive levels of classification, which would correspond to a building, a room, a cupboard, a shelf, a row, a box...
you can put other programs, various files etc. in it. If you do not find in "C" a program that you have installed yourself, it could be in Roaming,
like the one I was looking for to back up my smartphone's files, "smart switch pc". Unable to find, He was there C:\Users\Guy\AppData\Roaming\Samsung\Smart Switch PC.
Microsoft sometimes/often puts files everywhere. The FS flight simulator is in C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Games\Microsoft Flight Simulator X, but there are some in the famous Roaming,
and also in C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\FSX, including an essential and unique one, the "scenery.cfg" !! that many amateurs seek in vain.
NOTE. If you have a shortcut on the desktop, a right mouse click on it suggests you find it: "open file location".
Operations on files
It may be useful to know the size of a file, i.e. the space it occupies in memory (disk, USB key...),
expressed in kilobytes (thousand) or megabytes (millions).
To do this, right-click on the file name, then click on "properties" at the bottom of the list.
You can modify it by clicking directly in the box of its name; the mouse line flashes and you can delete and reinsert it at will.
Shortcut for folder/file. Its Icon has a small arrow and the inscription "shortcut" after its name.
the "shortcut" entry can be deleted by clicking in the entry). Usually placed on the desktop, this arrow icon is a link
to the real folder/file placed elsewhere on the PC.
A right click on this shortcut icon allows you to find the location of the stored folder/file ("open location").
Create a shortcut.
With the right mouse button, click on the name of a program - example on "Word.exe" -
a list appears: click on "create a shortcut". Depending on the case, the shortcut created in this way can be automatically placed on the desktop, which is indicated by a message from Windows,
but most often, it is created in the list where the original clicked file is located! so it is usually necessary to find it in this list, sometimes below the original, sometimes below. To find it, you move with the directional arrows on the keyboard or the mouse wheel.
Then move the shortcut to the place where you want to place it (see below for these manipulations).
Highlighting consists in selecting a text to process it (bold, change characters, move, delete etc.).
1/ Show one or more words. Click on the first character of a word, then move the mouse by releasing the button only to the last character, included.
The word is then highlighted. Be careful not to include a space, before or after the word, because if it is an address (email, Internet), it would not be valid.
2/ Show a list or part of a text.
Place the mouse line in front of the first word to select, then press "Shift" permanently ("Shift" key),
the key above "Ctrl" (control), and without releasing, press "arrow to the right" on the keyboard: this highlights
the whole line with, or part of it. Under the same conditions, pressing the "down arrow" highlights the entire lines downwards.
To tweak, you can go back with the "up arrow" or "left arrow" key.
DRAG-move. To move the highlighted word, point the mouse over it, then click the left button. Without releasing it, you can then move the highlighted word (drag, drag in English)
to another location. The simplest case: move an Icon on the desktop.
To copy text, a file, a list, (doc, photo, software), you must highlight the desired part as described above,
or simply place the mouse line on it (in the case of a single file).
Then right-click on the underline to open a list in which you will choose "copy".
the selection is stored. Then, by successive clicks of the left button, you choose the desired destination (other folder, software etc),
located on the same disk, a USB key, SD card... By clicking on the right side of the destination again, you choose "paste".
Important note: you can only stick in a "compatible" place!
We understand that it is impossible to paste text into a photo! We can't paste it into a folder either.
It must be placed either elsewhere in the same text document or in another open text in another document.
The coloured "memo" sheets of Windows 7/10 receive these text fragments perfectly.
Similarly, a copied email address can be pasted into an open text or an email to be sent.
Hide (texts, pictures, programs.. Some files can be hidden (*). Right-click on its name, "general" tab, and at the bottom tick "hidden"; the problem is that we may not find it again !
It is also possible to use a trick which, if it does not fully guarantee confidentiality, prevents direct opening. I cannot specify here the nature of this trick, which is personal and must remain confidential (more information).
(*) there is an option "somewhere", that allows or not seeing the hiden files ! so, theys are no longer hiden..
LOOKING AFTER THE MINIMUM
First of all, SAVE at the time something is created, being only a mere few words.
DON'T FILL UP THE HARD DRIVED "C" BEYOND 75 % in order to be able defragmenting with good conditions and keep
enough memory free for running any programs.
Third, DEFRAGMENT the hard drive "C" (and others) for the best operation of Windows and softwares.
The storage of data quickly becomes chaotic and divided into countless areas of the disk (fragmented).
The key called "Windows" is at the bas left and right hand keyboard (kind of flag with 4 boxes) or when clicking on the task bar.
ALL this stuff is for Win XP but still mainly right for Win 7, even 10
a max of files in My Documents a sharp tip is to gather all your own files in the directory "documents".
Make as many directories and sub-dir you need.
For example, the file 1 (house) contain nearly 20 subdirectories such
as purchase and links, bank and money account, administrations, cars,
mails , kitchen, travels, invoices, telephone and Internet (connexion,
codes, instructions etc), anniversaries, address, transports, clothes
(size etc), technical stuff and machines (functions, type, serial numbers ..).
Idem for documents depending of your own interests.
Do not forget anything make an inventory Most usual ones finances accounts, mails and letters pictures, drawings,
various texts, notes, photos, music because one day or another, you are going to loose them.
those you dont pay attention E-Mail addresses Internet links (Favourites), small programs", updates
downloaded, programs, downloaded installed in "Program files". A lot of them will restart pitching the code number .
Supplements for games and simulation, files that end by ".cfg" configuration files that keep choices and settings, settings of Internet link
and Outlook Express or similar, various code numbers ..
take sreen shots. Open these settings on the desk and take a screen shot (press "Prt Scn"
- Safeguard in several USB Keys, external hard disc, SSD, DVD/CD or another internal hard disc or in a partition of the main one. Three savings are not too much,
mainly for the financial accounts.
Saving the address file:
Open Outlook Express, click on "address" above; your list of contacts is displayed, the first name is normally selected,
press "Shift" permanently (the key above the "Ctrl" (control), and
without releasing, press "down arrow", you highlight so the whole list,
or a part. At top, now press 'Copy' then open your folder "My
Documents", click the right mouse button and select "New" then "Folder"
a new folder is created (you later rename "My Emails" ; select it, you
can now paste your addresses, with the mouse "right click" or with
"Edit" and "paste" at the top. Contacts are now saved. To be refreshed
from time to time. To reuse an address, open your "My Emails", double
click on the address of your choice, then " Add to Address Book ";
address now returned to your scrapbook.
Partition the disk into two or three virtual disks C D E, Windows will automatically placed itself on C and alter others letters consequently. Don't worry for that. One can partition at
the time of reinstalling Windows (after reformatting the hard drive, Windows ask to choose the disk drive); then modifie or
finish later in the section "Disk Management". Paywares can do so
afterwards. Why provide a particular section (virtual letter disc)
for Windows? if you need to reinstall after a major incident
(virus, a serious breakdown, internet connections ..) you can do on
the C drive and even format it without losing any of your files on
the other valves (virtual disks D, E.).. A second hard drive is of
course even better if the first fails.
Move "my documents" : key "Windows", "My documents", right mouse click on "My
documents", "Properties" (last line), "move", choose the place where you
want to transfer your file "my documents" within the box which opens while clicking on "move" (develop the various discs and document tree).
Advice : shift it inside a different drive or partition than the "C" one, that contain Windows.
- E-mail : Don't send the received Email !!
Do you really need to receive an answer with the content of your previous letter ? Are going to answer and adding the whole content of the
received mail ? surely yes most of the time. So messages become longer and longer uselessly. Open Outlook Express then click on "Tools", then on the bottom line, choose "sending" and
unclick the box "attach/join the original message" or something that means the same thing.
You can also disconnect some automatic functions, or add automatically a note (your address, company, web site..)
on each E-Mails you send.
Explore the other tabs "menu" (table).
3 / Fight against spam. Hackers are looking for addresses in the mailboxes but especially on forums, sites and locating
signs @ "mailto". The anti-spam software are, from my point of view,far to be effective because they should delete the spam at the beginning, ie at the ISP (eg, the
portal Wanadoo). But nobody would take the risk of removing at the same time some useful
email. Functions of Outlok or Mozilla
for the identification and elimination of these letters are unsatisfactory.
Worse, they class sometime good emal with bad ones. Note:
The @ sign is also obtained by simultaneously pressing Alt Grd and @
Here's what we fear to preventive: 1/Use two or three mailboxes. - The first one will only be given to your friends and acquaintances.
It should long remain "clean".
The second letter box will be reserved for researchor to receive emails you rely on.
I personally opened a 3rd mailbox on a free ISP to make searches from this box. Possibility offered by AOL, Netscape or another >.
No matter if this box fill in with lots o messages.
2 / Depending on the opportunities offered by e-mail, delete scripts,
receipt of files, or only receive the headers of letters (the subject
and sender name), which is possible in
Thunderbird. Then go to the portal (home page) for the ISP
to check your emails without repatriation.
You are able to only download attachments from there.
You will also tick all messages to be removed, of which of course, those which are bad.
3 /Emails links are obviously well known by all who seek them. Do not display your email link, and do what I practice on my website by
cutting the link in two parts.
Since then I have no longer junk mails from my site. (Click on "Email "
On my site at the top)
- Viruses :" The French paper", I quote : If you
want protecting your interlocutors from possible viruses, and you too
because they return to you by their address book, store only a
minimum of usual addresses in your notebook and make a safety file
of the others as above (that is what I did). In spite of the anti-virus
ones, fire wall.., never open the attached files if you are not sure of
the correspondent (example : no text in the letter or one requires your
opinion on something, you receive a screen saver or information about
non transmitted letter with an attached file (there is not !) be wary
also with the pub in general or mails informing you that you
transmitted a virus !! You have to also to know that if you are on a
newsgroup, your chances increase considerably and you will have to
remove unceasingly considerable doubtful mails.
The key said "Windows" is at the keyboard bottom left (kind of flag with 4 boxes)
or when clicking on the start bar.
- Search function :
if you want to search an "exe(cution)" file don't know the name, type search : *.exe
> and you will see all the files ending with .exe ;
*.gif will read all the pictures "gif" and also *.jpg or *.bmp
that are the main used. So you can retrieve all this files and sort
them again and delete if useless to gain memory ; think that a big *.bmp
files take a lot of memory. If you can, use Paint
(search function !!) to turn each *.bmp file into *.jpg file for that, open it with
paint or another photo program (photoshop..) and restore it in choosing
store into "jpg". You can try to resize it or reframe it.
- Send to :
Send to is proposed with a mousse right click on a file
. One can put inside any shortcuts of programs we want to (Paint, Photoshop, WinWord, Excel, My documents, My Images, etc).
You get then access directly to your favourite program !!
> No longer necessary to select a lot of directories each time !!
Search the file "Send to" :
hard disc C, then Doc and Settings, then your own personal directory
(GL here), then finally your own "Send to" . Create a shortcut for the
directory "Send to" you will put on the desk, remembering its location >
: So, it will easy to add or delete anything at any time or refresh it.
Click the shortcut open >,
content is probably desk, storage units (discs), compressed files. You
are going to add all directories or programs you want. Examples are
given right hand (there is no sub-directories
(Music..) but it could).
Remember to place a copy inside your Documents.
It is a way to access to some usual programs by placing a shortcut of each
inside the Tool bar, named "links". These shortcuts are to be placed in the "links"
file whose address is hard disc C, then Doc and Settings, then your own
personal directory (GL here), then finally your Favourite then inside "links".
Now, create the Task bar 'links" inside the Windows blue band located
at the bottom of your screen : click right on the blue band, a list
appears, place the arrow
onto Tools bar, then
the "links" if it is not. Clicking on the arrow at
the bottom of the Tools bar (above the time and some others
active programs); list those you just place in it.
Representation of the files (icons of the desktop or in the list C:/ The icons make it
possible to recognize a file easily which, when they are create
manually, are all this yellow file image. One can create an image of
reduced size with a software like Paint (starting from a drawing, of a
photograph or by drawing oneself) and to record it under "icône1.bmp". To give your file the appearance of your image do as
follow : right clic on the traditional file (yellow) considered
(yours), then choice "Properties," Shortcut", "Change icon", "search"
(one indicates here the file in which one put "icône1.bmp",
>but choose "all files" instead of icones
>; click OK when the image "icône1.bmp" is selected,
then "Apply" and OK to complete. You now have a beautiful file
personalized on the desk or in the lists. The size of the image you
create does no matter because it will be resized automatically. You can
also select « Image » instead of « Icon ».
Sound card one can get a very good sound with a basic
sound card (250/300 FF), or one included in the mother card. Simply
connect the sound exit to the entry of a Hi-Fi system : even with a
mini chain, that must be better than with low price amplified loud
speakers (especially for "the low tones"). If you have a mini chain
unused, carry out the test. And do not forget that there is also an external entry to
connect "an auxiliary" of your choice (tape).
Low tones are those which require the most energy to be produced at
equal acoustic power. Do not think that a small and light enclosure of
a microcomputer, even "active", will be able to reproduce the low deep
tones suitably. One needs weight and surface, impossible to escape from
it (from where the interest to have a booster box and small HP for
mediums and highs (note : the low ones (bass) are less "directing" and
the stereo effect is especially perceived with the small ones which are
associated there (but it is a little expensive and there is a weakness
in mediums compared to a Hi-Fi system of good rank).
With Recuva,Inspector File Recovery or File Scavenger.
it is possible to recover the deleted files of the basket or those which are
erased by error and which are not found in the basket after being erased.
Kiking off inopportune functions of Windows.
(no Xspy !! that is an antivirus !). With WIN XP. My favourite Xpy allows turning off a lot of useless Windows funtions as : Sounds
system, ballon tips, error reporting,
Auto Play CD/DVD,
Indexing Service and a lot of others without any risk because any choice can be clearly retrieve.
"Windows" (start) + Pause
pressed together allow to make both main choices and settings.
System Securit (continued)
This one helps to remove cookies (spyware), storing passwords, programs to intervene remotely on your computer, etc.
- Restricting loading time : while loading, the processor check out the memory and you have to watch the counter running and wait... for nothing.
Simply hit the escape key.
This action could be effective too when loading a game to skip the video, sound or add that slow down the loading time.
But in this last case, there is another way : find the
sound, video... and delete them (store them in another folder).
The program will sometimes consider that the sound, video.. is over and go on, skipping them (the case for flight simulator).
If you know how to reach the "Bios" when starting (a message appears sometimes
while loading, as "hit DEL key", you will be able perhaps to select
"Quick boot") ; In other cases it is necessary to hit other keys like
F10, F8..; test them while loading hitting unceasingly one. Reaching
Bios also enables you to change the order of exploration of the discs
(diskette, CDROM, hard Disk 1, hard Disk 2, or to swich off a hard disk..>
panel delay (or else) when clicking on the "Control panel"
; key "Windows", "run", type
in the box, find "HKEY_CURRENT_USER", then "Control Panel", and Desktop. Click on MenuShowDelay ; the value
read is 400. Reduce to 150 or 100. The value zero can speed up too much
when choosing something on a scrolling menu.
- Speeding up Windows
(extract from the French EXPERT PC magazine (
www.pcexpert.fr) exceptional serial edition, November December 2002,
containing a CD with the pack 1 of Win XP and other assistance quoted
- LIMIT The SCREEN EFFECTS ; key "Windows" + key "pause/Attn" together; (or choice "panel control", "system", "advanced",
"parameters" in the section "performances" and stick "personalized
parameters"; For "visual Effects", only tick "use visual styles on windows
and buttons"; one can also "smooth the police of screen" (effect to
check after operation). For "Advanced", if you do not make any treatment of
photographs in time sharing (back ground processing), a defragmentation
of the disc or another thing being scheduled, i.e. time-sharing with
the program which you use directly, tick "the programs". In the
contrary case, balance both.
- REDUCE OR REMOVE THE RESTORATION ; Always in the box "System Properties " ("Windows key "+ key "pause/Attn",
together), tick "Restoration", tick "stop the restoration"
because this one controls all partitions of Windows, takes resources "CPU"
and can occupy up to 12 % of the capacity of the disc. Possibly restore
it after a demanding work in activity CPU (Central Processing Unit, the
"chip" of the PC) ; If you want to maintain this function, you can only
reduce the memory of the hard disk reserved for this purpose : In "System Properties ", tick "Restoration", click on one of the discs (C, D..) and on "parameters"; make slip the cursor at 5 or
6 %; (one can also call "Regedit" ("Windows key", "run", type "Regedit"
in the box ); One can remove the monitoring of the discs completely : "regedit":
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE, Software Microsoft Windows NT Current System,
Restore, Version. Put the digit 1 for "DisableSR".
- CHECK THE DIRECT ACCESSES TO HARD DISK (DMA) ; box "System properties", click on "Material", then on "Manager of peripherals"; in the list which is posted,
select "Main Canal IDE" and click above (in Controllers ATA/ATAPI);
check that mention "DMA if available" is posted twice.
Cacheman (search free Cacheman in the Net).
A space called "paging file" is an area of your hard drive reserved for this purpose.
If your PC has a lot of RAM memory (more than 256 Mo), both reducing the size and access to this paging called virtual
memory allows to accelerate Windows. But pay attention with the PC which share the graphic memory with the
RAM memory because the total memory may be less). Use Cacheman : tick "hides on the right" then "disk
mask": tick "minimize memory used". tick "RAM" and "Optimization":
tick "disable executive paging and unload DLLs from memory"; click on "save setting" in the stick "file"
(possible restarting PC). In the event of problems, restore DLLs.
Free room on hard disc ; clean it with Windows: touch "Windows", "all programs",
bas left hand, "accessories", "tools system", "cleaning disc" (you
can ask to see the files). Lastly, frequently think to défragmenting your hard
drive, before and after the installation of programs or the
operation of some of them (film assembly.). Order the defragmentation
directly because the analysis is made systematically and you will be
able to stop it (if you make the analyse, it will be started again
before the defragmentation!) key "Windows", "all programs", bas left,
"accessories", "tools system", "defragment disc".
Also clean the disc with EasyCleaner (free), of TonyArts (which cleans also
the base of register, which Windows does not do); on its site, select "EasyCleaner".
Remove unobtrusive files which still occupy of the hard disk.
Important ! try not to fill up too much your hard disc. The PC need some room on the hard disc to work properly, sometimes a lot depending on the
program (virtual memory). What's more, if the hard disc has less than 20 % room free, it is impossible to unfragment it.
- Temporary files "TEMP"
In order to avoid fragmenting, best is to avoid spoiling up !! there are some ways, of which that which consists in returning
the file "temp" in a precise zone (but it is necessary to do a partition of disc on a virgin disc) ; you can use the second hard disk if you have one to
put the "temp" directory in it :
follow : use the "search" function of Windows and type "sysedit";
click onto to run it then click the first line of autoexec.bat and
enter as follow SET TEMP=D:\..
; look later from time to time into your
temp file, in the "C" disk : it must remain
nearly empty and the "D, or E temp" must
have some files. Hard disk: if you call upon a local assembler for your next computer, or a special
service of department stores, put your old hard disk in the new computer. It will be used as >
extension, and useful to transfer your works, and for all the new tests
(limit the fragmentation of the first).
Other versions of Windows (of which XP) : key "Windows" +
"Pause" pressed together; "System File
>" appears :
completely bottom, click on "variables of environment"
or something like that :
two boxes appear with TEMP and TMP (that of bas also but it
is necessary to make roll downwards. Underline the first inscription of
the 4 and click on "modify" ; erase all that is before TEMP and replace
it by the partition where you want to put temp (ex D) by leaving the
two points and the bar in skew (slash), as on the photograph above, but
without "SET". Make similar for the second line.
These at bas (Windows) can be also modified but I preferred to leave
them on C:\WINDOWS because it can be delicate to remove this category
Help ! - 1 / Read instruction on the
screen durinf the loading or maintain the keys F5, F8 or F10,
escape .. and choose, acting with the arrows up/down keys, "mode
without failure" (with or without network) or "diagnosis mode" or for
XP. The system starts with a reduced loading (you will undoubtedly have
no longer Internet, nor CDrom, neither a beautiful screen, but you will
be able to function nevertheless essentially and to remove the last
program or pilot installed, if you think it can be responsible. Windows
can also re-start again correctly, without any alteration made, after
having made this choice (shut it and start it again regularly).
Windows offers more with the "last good known configuration", and
also has "times of restoration" which make you get back your PC at a
former step (keys "Windows", "Programs", "Accessories", "Tools system", "Restoration".
- 2 /Put the set up on the CDRom ; Windows then read "to install", "to repair"
or "to put at level" according to its version. A new installation can
make you lose whole or part of your files, whereas the other options,
if they exist, don’t erase anything. If your PC does not test the CD
with starting but only the floppy "A", it is necessary to reach the "boot"
(a message appears sometimes while starting such as: hit "DEL"or other
keys: you can then reach the Bios and change the checking sequence of
the discs (floppy, CDRom, hard Disk 1, hard Disk 2 .. : set the CDRom
in first reader.
- 3 Use the console of recovery,
but it is necessary to have an unquestionable expertise.
- 4 / Advice: in many cases, if the
defect is serious, it is preferable to proceed with a new installation;
although it is necessary to reinstall all other programs, plus its own
works (beforehand safeguarded) ; you will be sure to make work again
your PC (excepted if power, cards or hard disk failures), because you
are likely to waste much more time arranging tests and tests.
- 5 / Numerous problems caused by a half compatible disc ; for long, my micro
"jerked" during films making or while using software demanding high CPU
(the chip) use ; I had moreover many requests at checking of the second
disc while starting the computer, like for the "Iomega" too. However,
all was normal and it read and stored well on the second disc; I
finally replaced this hard disk (which was from another PC, and all got
normal again, except for "Iomega" which caused also messages for
checking it for nothing. I formatted all my Iomega diskettes with my
new computer (XP, files NFTS) and all got back in right order;
moreover, my PC as gained in speed because it surely made constant
calls to the Iomega as it did it for the second hard disk.
- 6 / Power; if you have got problems while starting your PC or Windows, or problems with the quick
starting (snooze) of Win XP, think at the power unit which can be a little weak, especially if you added cards, scanner etc. I had to
change mine because the test of the units was not made any more that very badly with starting and I was to initially switch on the rear PC
Tower switch to put only the power under tension, then push the front button to launch the starting of the PC afterwards (10 to 15 mn) !
it is an operating mode you can always try to check if it is better like that. And buy a more powerful power unit.