hibis "three sites"

hibis, nothing
but reality

hibis   Islands and Lagoons, Pacific life ///
email         update

This page  French Oceania


Continent "Oceania".

Oceania is one of the five continents of our planet. It covers nearly the whole Pacific Ocean, which extends on the third of our planet.

- Four entities make up it: Australasia (*), Micronesia, Melanesia and Polynesia.
These entities are supposed to correspond to waves of settlement and therefore to ethnic or social traits. Linguitics also perhaps, if there is a unity in the myriad of Melanesian dialects where one does not understand each other between neighboring tribes (New Caledonia).

(*)Australasia indicates the unit Australia, Papuasie Nouvelle Guinea and New Zealand.

Poynesia is a true phenomenon, an extended unit of smal islands where the same culture reigns from the New Zealand to Easter island, passing by Society, Hawaii...

(*) continents. ; French definition, "a huge stretch of land that can be traversed without crossing the sea!"

And in fact, Oceania continent consists mainly of water, which is enough surprising !!

Europe is also a case, on the one hand because it is necessary to cross the sea to go to England, but also because one can go without this gap to Peking and well beyond on the "Asian continent", welded in the continent "Europe well" One can still meditate on the concept of continent.

In fact, Europe is a religious Christian continent and not a physical one.

The maritime domain.
Thanks to its hold on part of Oceania, France is the second largest submarine power, after the USA and ahead of Australia.
It should be noted that the slightest rock entitles a minimum of 12-12 nautical miles of territorial waters (1 nautical mile - 1852m), extendable to 200 nautical miles for resource exploitation. This defines an "exclusive economic zone" and the EEZ. With limitations, this EEZ is increased to 350 miles if the country proves that its continental shelf extends beyond 200 miles. France has retained the maximum for its EEZ, and has promoted the continental shelves, giving it 4.8 million square km for Polynesia, out of the 11 million and a few in total. Clipperton, with 2 km2 of land, offers us an EEZ of 440,000 km2. (Internet source for details) ZEE 200 miles. These are not property per se, nor exclusions of passage, but exclusive rights to exploit the resources contained in this area, including fishing. EEZ from 200 to 350 miles. The 200-350 mile extension only applies to the ocean floor and its subsoil, so neither fishing nor water exploitation. But that goes for the oil exploit.


 Bougainville fighting with the inhabitants of "the archipelago of the travellers" (the Samoa islands).

Note the fire maintained on board of the double hull boat.
Not to be confused with the shotgun, where we can also see the - large - flame of fire, a detail of the drawings at this time.

60.000 years ago, the sea level was 150 meters lower;

Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea were joined together and the channels of sea towards Asia narrower. The displacement of the populations of Asia was thus carried out first of all towards these zones, Malaysia included, but there were no more possibilities beyond. The first traces of agriculture go back to -8000 years ; at this time, groups are well established there.

MORE ? look at the French page map and text (click on the top of the page, red line right (translate it with Google or Deepl)

Boat with double hull. These boats could very significant; it is said that scouts were sent on single hull veil dugouts. (prao). Reason of the exodus ? for some people, the search for new islands where the son of a King could build a new kingdom. But the man, as much as the animals, never ceased venturing since the planet was totally covered ! Occupation of the Pacific Islands would have occurred according to the diagram on the right hand.

There is 4000 years a new wave, the "Austronésiens", from Formosa and Ma laysia, more evolved and holders of the pottery "Lapita", discovered in New Caledonia, are at the origin of the Polynésien settlement , which is completed at the beginning of our era, after a thousand years interruption. The boats with two hulls (enormous trunks) joined together by a wooden deck could reach 30 meters length and carry 100 men.

People originate from Asia, and so are nearly all animals and plants.

 Pacific : Tahitipress, 27/08/2004 Vanuatu: archaeologists discover bodies going back to 3000 years, revealing the secrecies of the first men who colonized the Southern Pacific, indicated, Friday at AFP, researchers Australian.

Magazine "GEO" No 287 January 2003 : The ancestors of the Polynesians, Pascuans and Maoris of New Zealand, remarkable navigators, indeed carried out a single exploit in the histoiry of humanity; the systematic colonization of the largest ocean of the world, the Pacific, 20 000 km from Asia to central America, ocean become a regular place of exchange !
Far from rudimentary, their deep-sea dugouts with double hull being able to reach 60 meters. The Hokulea, dugout rebuilt starting from old plans by scientists of Hawaii, sails since 1975 in the Pacific.

They sailed without instruments, without sea maps, while following the avei'a, the way of the stars, which were used as reference marks, with the moon, the sun, the winds, as well as the direction of the swell, the colors, the luminosities near the grounds, the vegetable remains, the birds which still allow to appreciate distances from the island or grounds, according to their species (ex : the frigates fly more away than other species.
This colonization does not owe anything to random because the islands are so small they have no chance chance to cross these little scattered dots on the sea ; as they were probably without resources nor sufficient vegetation at that time, they would have died there from hunger if they did not brought what to survive with.

hibis: This last point is questionable. The reserves, if there were still edibles, could not sustain for long. But it is a people of fishermen and it can rain enough in the tropics. The conquest took place from island to island and it is conceivable that regular rotations of supply to several canoes could have been established, time to settle down to protect, begin to produce and collect water.

Peoples came in several waves since 1200 before our era, with a long interruption of one thousand of years before the Polynesian wave. The Polynesian culture would have emerged starting from the islands Tonga and Samoa.

 Curious : at the time of a "festival", the men of the Asmat tribe, in Irian Jaya (Western Guinea News), danced by making these movements of chisel with their legs, specific to the Polynesians (report TV Ushuaïa of the 27 12 2000).

Food : The concern of the first navigators was well food : it would have been limited to the coconuts (Asia), which provided water and could be trailed in the water for two months, the fish (eaten raw or dried).. and perhaps also to the rats.

Time passing the sedentarisation occure and came also the fruits of the breadfruit tree (Indo-Malaysia or the Pacific), the sugar cane, yam and tarot (Asia), the manioc, the banana tree (India), then the sweet potato (America); as for meat, the small black pig (Asia) which one still sees, the chicken (Asia) and also some good pieces of men, who could be appreciated in period of food shortage, for religious sacrifices, or for a big "party". Were the sacrificed people enemies, contenders, opponents, condemned man ??

Subsidiary question : when did they discover these succulent bancoul worms , which one still regales oneself in this area.

 The Marquesas Islands and Raiatea were centres of expansion of the Polynesian culture (*). This assumption is confirmed for certain by the fact that Raiatea was called formerly Havaiï.

In the western part (Melanesia), no common language was developed, but the Polynesian incursions had there some influence (language, modification of the dugouts).

(*) Another assumption, which led to the successful navigation of Kon Tiki (raft), supports that these people, at least those of the Eastern Pacific, come from America; for some, they would be descendants of Olmèques driven out by the Mayas, which would have crossed the Ocean on basalt rafts.

 Nobody denies that there were contacts with pre-Columbian civilisations; the question is: who was initially at the other and up to what point? no dugout of the Polynesian type was found in America, but of the Polynesian stone tools were found in Indian tombs of Chile; and the sweet potato bears the same name in these two parts of the world: "will kumara".
In fact, there was another crossing in the opposite direction, less known but just as successful which, with a similar raft, reached the coast of Chile !

COMPLEMENT 2019. Excerpts from the Book of The Geneticist Bryan Sykes the seven daughters of Eve Alas, the text is only in French (to be translated with Google or Deepl). He
The author provides very interesting evidence and conclusions based on a new genetic study (particular DNA of mitochondria).
He states that South or North America people had not reached the Polynesian islands, while the opposite is likely if not certain, as in present-day Chile..

Lapita, name of the first discovery site in New Caledonia.

Lapita pottery, museum of Nouméa

- In less than 300 years of existence, pottery and ceramics "Lapita" have left to us these works adorned with fine carvings.
Over 300 sites spaced each others up to km 4500, shelter them. They trace the moving of the Austronesian people in the South Pacific about 3000 years ago. It would be one of the first expression of the Polynesian culture. These pots were later abandonned, dethroned by the big stone ovens.. (note hibis : numerous techniques - and civilizations - have vanished for lack of "buyers". It is a fact of life, which has been occured continuously without being noticed.

What to conclude from it ? The diagrams suggested are simplifying; in fact, there is always mixing of various populations and nothing is never as clear as it is presented to us; for example, of the differences were noted in the past between the Tahitians of the east and those of the west; there would have been also, inside Tahiti, of the mélanoïdes.

There probably had adventurer-explorer-fishermen, who furrowed the seas well before the official discoveries ; how these forwardings could "have pointed" almost directly on all these islands if there had not been some brought back information ? few chances actually, even if the clouds, floating remains of plants, then the birds could announce a remote ground (It is known that Cook knew the existence of Australia).
Is it thus so disconcerting that individuals with the fair hair (and some blue eyes) were announced by Alvero Mendana? (one found, into tombs of the Marquesas, in Fatu Hiva, light brown hair, whereas the dyeing or discolouration was not practised).

There are blue eyes in Maré and Lifou and elsewhere (New Caledonia), but there, it is known that there were English missionaries...

France rules the Islands of the Société, the Australes (Southern), the Marchionesses, New Caledonia (of which Chesterfields located at 400 km towards Australia), Wallis and Futuna.

For memory, France shared the administration of New Hebrides with England (condominion) before the independence of these islands called now Vanuatu.


Petroglyphs remain a mystery because one cannot date them. They are widespread in all Oceania. In the same way remain unexplained the tumulus (ex: Island of the Pines).

See also : "Cook - Bougainville - d'Entrecasteaux - Dumont d' Urville - La Pérouse", in "WORDS".
Thanks to its influence on part of Oceania, France is the second underwater power after the USA and before England.

TAKING POSSESSION Tahiti : In 1834, French catholic missionnaires yet installed in Gambiers islands, settle in PAPEETE where the English Protestant pastors have been installed for 12 years, of which George Pritchard. The latter make pressure on the queen Aïmata Pomaré IV: French is obliged to re-embark. To wash this affront, one sends the captain A. Dupetit-Thouars (under Louis Philippe), to request repair from the queen (August 1838). A fight of influence follows and the disorder settles. The assembly of the tahitiens Chiefs claims French protectorate then to restore the peace. A provisional government is established in agreement with English but Pritchard does not disarm and hold again influence on Pomaré. In 1844, A. Dupetit-Thouars makes him expelled but England requires repair on his turn ! One speaks about war. but later, Pritchard is compensated and France keeps the protectorate. In Tahiti however, it is the effervescence and the revolt (1844 to 1846). It is again necessary to fight and the last rebels make allegeance on January 1, 1887. The Pomaré queen is faithful to France and dies after 50 years of reign (1887) by giving up her rights to France. (Larousse Encyclopaedia) NOTICE (for the choice of France, some speak about a "romance".

TAKING POSSESSION New Caledonia : In 1843, the government (Louis Philippe) plans to take possession of New Caledonia. The French flag is planted in Balade from 1843 to 1846. At that time the Guizot minister has big difficulties with England (see on the right hand) and command to withdraw it to avoid new incident. is One interested again in New Caledonia under the second Republic and on their own side English activates and projects the installation of a deposit of coal. In 1853, the French imperial government is concerned with finding a ground to establish a penal settlement there. Napoleon III then orders the taking possession and on September 24, 1853, the admiral Auguste Febvrier-Despointes again makes hoist the French flag at Balade, then the 29, on the Pines island. Undoubtedly one benefits from the alliance England is searching with France in the Mediterranean sea. Australia, it, does not appreciate this change. A few days later, coming from China, Tardy de Montravel confirms the taking possession on the East coast then search a more secure port, finds a favourable one he call Port of France. (renamed later on Nouméa to avoid confusion with Fort de France).

 The first years, autochtones rebel starting from Hienghène and the conflict extends because it was necessary to delimit the canaques grounds and those allotted to the colonists. In 1878 a true insurrection under the control of the Ataï Chief bursts when the colonists bring their herds. Seven months after and 200 dead French and thousand kanak, Ataï is killed by Segou, Chief of Canala. Calms is restored in January 1879. (Guide Hachette).

From 1864 to 1897, 22.000 condemned are received in different bagnes. Some profited later from concessions of grounds.

hibis  Islands and lagoons       back to top