Looking into the subject reveal a correlation between the number of days and that of the scratches, then between the number of months and that of
the cells; the number of scratches is about 29 to 30 between each cell and the number of the cells is 31 to the maximum. It is the number from 29
to 30 which intrigued two researchers (German and American) because this number could be that of the lunar and nonsolar cycle as it was thought.
(*) a rule posed on external surface (tangent) always formed the same angle (here 78°) with the ray passing by the point of contact of the rule.
In fact, the descent and the increase of Nautilus would be related to the tides. The two researchers then excavated fossils to discover that by going
far back in time, the number of scratches per compartment fell until the limit of 9 scratches only 420 million years ago!
Obviously, they have the same characteristics than any else animals, with perhaps in addition electric functions.
They gather, camouflaged themselves, measledd others, are capable of extraordinary ability you can not imagine, have unsuspected sensitivities and many other so astonishing behaviors ! (my
gold fish, Jojo, who had killed all his congeneric, watched for me at the corner of the corridor and as soon as it saw me appearing, made a strong noise of slapping with its mouth
and water !! (it was of course always hungry).
From the smallest which is 0,20 inches long (5 millimetres),(pandaka pygmea, Philippines, to the whale shark which can be 59 feet (18 m) and weigh more than 40 tons, the fish, for their forms and behaviour are a few surprising attitudes and exploits :
The blue fish tuna can swim fast as 45 miles an hour (70 km hour) and the swordfish at 55 miles an hour (90 km hour).
The manta ray which is 20 feet (6 meter) and weighs 3300 pounds (1500 kg) can jump 13 feet (4 m) above the water.
The sea unicorn throws ink in case of danger just like the squid of the octopus do.
the male sea horse has a ventral sac like the kangaroos where the eggs are incubated and the fry kept after the hatching.
The filapia abstain from eating and breeds its young in its mouth.
The fish Periophtalmus (Amazonia), get out of the water of the mangrove and climb up on the branches of a tree ; it can see everywhere because its protuberant eyes roll about in any direction being totaly independant each other !
The jumper fish uses its mouth as a sucker to climb the vertical stone wall of the cascades.
A fish walks on the bas of the water (its "fins" are like four legs !
Flying fish; they fly above the surface of water thanks to their particular fins. Others are satisfied themselves to carry out simple jumps out of water; do they catch insects ? undoubtedly, and surely not birds in the branches, as this crocodile of seven meters do, propelling out of water up to two meters in height by the propulsion of its tail !
The archer fish chases flying insects throwing water drops 5 feet (1,5m) away with a great accuracy and knock out the prey ; it has also the ability to foresee the fall of the prey so that no one else can eat it before him.
The velvet fish (Polynesia) : Does not seem have scales because its body is so smooth. Are they so tiny we can't feel them ? I don't get any further knoledge.
There are of course parasites, which benefit from the others, but there are also agreement associations, justified by an exchange of "utilities" : for example, protection on a side, cleaning of the other.
The pusser fish swallows water and trebles its volume, in the event of danger, transforming itself into a roughcast ball of spikes, impossible to chew.
The fugu, appreciated so much by Japanese, floats the belly up to mislead the enemy. Among the most dangerous fish, the fugu occupies, if one can say, a place of choice. It is indeed mortal only in the plates of Japanese, which raffolent some.
The labre cleans fish which present themselves at its station ! gestural makes it possible to agree. It is not alone and 45 species would take part in thid job, not to only clean but also look after (parasitic removed, perhaps even cauterization). Certain species enter the mouth, hearing etc. In California, the sharks make wait in line to go and be cleaned one after the other.
Only some examples are known, of which obviously the very media shark (see "sharks". This fact seems confirmed both by the marks left by their teeth in hulls of boats close to metal parts, and on transoceanic telephone cables ; as for the dead sperm whale found imprisoned in these cables, one can deduce from it the depth to which they go down ( at least 400 m for this whale).
jellyfishes flicker and others release "clouds of light" which put in danger those which are enlightened !
Those which cannot produce this chemical gleam "raise" bioluminescent bacteria (case of the "lamp").
The sperm whale, the giant squid, but also of other fish of deep sea, detect the light at more than 1000 meters deep were it is total night reigns for the man.
The fish’s smell can be very sensitive. A shark can smell blood several hundreds yards away and the salmon is able to trace its native river thanks to its particular smell.
This edge line would be a multi detector ; it is also supposed that it would enable them to detect many other events (electric or electromagnetic variations, vibrations etc).
Some "flatfish" , sail needles, turbots, limandas etc rest on the bas where they nourished themselves. Their two eyes are on the top but while looking well, they are not symmetrical and even the mouth is a little distort. At the the birth, they are completely normal, with an eye on each side. Thereafter, this part of the head becomes deformed and an eye passes on other side while the mouth goes below !
More than 25 millions eggs have been found in a cod’s belly.
The fish sometimes cover thousand miles in search of food, warmer waters or just to procreate. The salmons which lives in the sea go back to their native river to lay eggs. The eels leaves their river and travel more than 3000 miles (5000 km) to the Sargasso sea where they lay eggs and die. The young eels travel in the opposite direction for one to three years.
Many other species instinctively migrate each season for reasons which are not understood yet.
The animals imitate men. The animals imitate the sounds of their environment. There was a big surprise to hear that elephants imitated the noise of our cars or trucks which passed nearby ! Scientists and Military think the bélougas would imitate the noise of the submarines. They would have even failed to be torpedoed as such, but the behavior undoubtedly strange and the “signature” of the noise would have saved them at least. What could lead them imitatating ? are they telling they have identified the intruder, that they know that they are there, perhaps also is it an attempt to communicate and to see whether that answers? Unless it is a warning ? It does not matter, let us us alone and let us start imitating them !
Marine pollution. Effects of the marine pollution, studied by scientist Canadian on the whales belugas (white), show that these animals are soaked with toxins which could be well at the origin of the noted increase in cancers for these animals. On certain corpses, the rate is such as they could be classified like dangerous ! presence of toxins is noted at all animals marine, although qualified specialist declares:"the dilution is so wide that no effects are to be feared". There is in fact an effect of accumulation which occurs with the time in these animals, which live for the majority close to the coasts, where the concentration is the strongest.
The study of toxicity is practised today on each product taken separately. These researchers explore another approach of pollution, that which comes from the whole of the chemicals, of the by-products by combination or transformation. The result is studied at the end of the chain because it is currently unimaginable to study some 80.000 chemicals, their interactions, their transformations in an alive world ! Example: the bacteria transform mercury into methyl mercury and fish concentrating this poison. In the USA, it was noted that derivatives of chlorine had an impact on the human reproduction, concerning women and men.
Starfish devourer of corals and sugar canes..
Since 1960, a starfish which devours the corals reproduces abnormally. In Australia, enquiring comes to establish a bond between the action of fertilizers rejected into the sea, of which nitrogen, and proliferation of the acanthasters. This starfish, known as "thorny bush", observed at idle, devours the corals as a roller of washing brushes a car. It noted that they precisely proliferated in the zones or the rejections were strongest; the storms, while bringing back them to the shore, can accelerate the phenomenon. These places correspond in particular to the intensive exploitation of the sugar cane, with destruction of the "useless" vegetation which slowed down the streaming to the rivers then the sea (trees, bushes, ponds.). Perhaps one will agree a day to lose part of the cultivated surface.
The snake passes between the legs of the diver without any problem ; no human death is ascribable toit to date.
They have specialized ventral scales for crawling on land or climbing the rocks.
Although recluse, they like to gather for some unknown reasons, perhaps to find a partner or to protect themselves.
|Their forked tongue is animated with wide movements from top to bottom. The right-hand photograph shows the two superimposed extreme positions (personal work).
they guided themselves more with their sense of smell than by their sight, palpating and tasting with their tongue the odorous particles, under water and out of water ; they perceive
also the light movements of water due to the displacement of fish.
Their tail is paddle-shaped
They thus move right on their prey, small fish or eel at the bas of a cavity.
This fish will be immobilized by rolling up, then bitten.
|Ennemies ; sharks, which seem immunized against their venom, pursue them on the occasion, just as other large fish; their worst enemy would be the murene,
which although not attacking them, can cut them of pieces if it feels threatened lorqu' they pass from adventure too much close to its den.
The crab striking at the speed of the flash and kills them with small fire by maintaining them between their grips
Collective fishing ; palms of coconut are assembled to constitute a kind of very long net (I do not know the Polynesian name).
A group of men draws it into not very deep water of the lagoon according to a large circle.
Other groups are sometimes charged to strike water to make the fish going back.
Plungers intervene in the process. The fish taken under the leaves takes refuge towards the center where it is trapped and harpooned.
- The dugouts." The dugouts which we manufactured were made of boards sewn between them and caulked with coconut flock mixed with sap of bread fruit tree. They were less sturdy than the dugouts they were dug in breadfruit tree trunks, but both faster to build and lighter". Account of Tavae in its book "so far from the world".
In the following case, it is about a passage above the reef itself but the difficulty to get back emphasis very well the risks incurred everywhere on the reef, passes or not. Here, the entering wave once passed, literally deposited the swimmers in a current of backward flow. Very perilous situation.
"We were on the islet RONHUA in the great south, near the Island HUGON. Time was very very fine, with a sea absolutely plain. We were going to dive to the Great Reef between the two island of UITOE and HOLY VINCENT and we found inside the reef a pretty water hole in which we fished. The desire then takes to us to pass on the external part of the reef, to seek some lobster because the sea did not break on the reef as usual. The large reef at this place, has a hundred meters broad, is covered by one meter fifty of water. The landscape of this alive reef was a true splendour for our eyes of Zoreilles (French from France). We cross this reef with a great facility, and we emerge of only one blow on great Blue. Purple Blue, increasingly dark when one looks to the bas because the reef is nearly vertical as far as the eye can see and does not go down like a mountainside ; a kind of anguish takes with the idea that something could emerge from nothing. "In this dark bas", something, a fish, appears ; it seems a large one. Then, others smaller comes ; that comes from this gigantic coral wall which is stretched until loss of sight, that goes back there. the ground is there in our back and I notice that all of us peer frequently backward the Dark Blue to check that nothing unexpected suddenly could appears.
But it is now time to get back and we began to pass on the reef in opposite way. Waves coming from the broad sea sweep the surface of water. We move towards the boat which is a hundred meters far away. A wave of swell, which progress on the reef, takes over us and we fall down one meter towards the stones under our belly. There, a strong stream in opposite direction get us back in a few seconds at our starting point in the Great Blue. The return was not gained.
We move along the reef about fifty meters hoping to find a better passage, but this time, we await a higher wave and start again ; arrived at the end of the wave boost, we plunge under water to clutch ourselves on the coral, thinking fighting against this back flow. We thus wait at the bas of one meter of furious water, but we are missing air and we go up to take a sip of breath but consequently we set out again backwards of our starting point !! at this point, I think I must find a way to hook ourselves but nevertheless continuing to breathe"
I think of the underwater speargun, and the harpoon at the tip.
This can be used as anchor. We swim off again at the attack of the reef, well carried by a high wave but this time swiming furiously
to try to regain a maximum of ground.
Using the harpoon, we succeed in hooking three of us side by side. When the wave takes over us and consequently leaves us at the basin the backwards stream, we note that we are close enough near the surface to are able to breathe a bit with our tubas, and we are waiting the next wave to set out again towards our boat, five meters by five meters. We fight thus during nearly fifteen minutes. We are completely exhausted.
We did not know that according the places you are in the lagoon, the hours of tide given by the media and which relate to NOUMEA, can vary by several hours. There is a directory for the tides, giving more precise information for the year that it is always necessary to have in the boat ".
"That occurred to Unia in 1982. I had leaved one day to plunge at low tide with three buddies more experienced than me, outside the fringing reef in the south of Touhaourou, between Yaté and Goro. There, the reef being stuck to the beach, we had crossed it on foot to dive directly in the waves which broke at the edge of the steep marine slope. In this place the slope, it is not too much impressive, and it goes down like a hill of rocks. After our time passed all along the edge, the sea had gone up and large waves were breaking up. In water, behind the roller, one does not see at all the reef, unless from under the water. Time is now to come back and thus to await for a favorable wave ; the breaking rollers are generally coming per series of three, i.e two big and smaller. To avoid being made hurled on the obstacles by breaking roolers, it is necessary to choose the best higher wave, if possible not beachcomber and to launch out ourselves on it at the right time, with maximum height, then swimming strongly to remain above the water while looking in front of oneself. Indeed, the stream of this high wave literally spits you to at least 20 km/h at 50 cm above the reef which one cannot say that it is smooth. Fortunately the flippers are there. They make it possible to control very well our movements inside the stream: but it is necessary to remain INSIDE the stream and it is itself which avoids the obstacles. It is the same thing that in river and it is quite as impressive But there everything go well and without breakage, thanks to the equipment of diver.
"Another time, we saw a young imprudent soldier who had gone at sea like us, but without any mask nor tuba ; he was hurled by the beachcomber on an arborescent coral heap and finished covered with bad wounds and blood ; fortunately, he could be taken soon to the hospital, that is not so easy in this country".